Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
7Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
cassification of magnetic materials

cassification of magnetic materials

Ratings: (0)|Views: 441|Likes:
Published by amrhessein74039
Introduce a brief notes on the classification of magnetic materials according to their spin moment
Introduce a brief notes on the classification of magnetic materials according to their spin moment

More info:

Published by: amrhessein74039 on May 14, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

02/06/2013

pdf

text

original

 
Dr. M. MedrajMech. Eng. Dept. -Concordia UniversityMECH 221 lecture 23/ 
5
Basic Concepts
Electrically charged particles generatemagneticforces.A magnetic field exerts atorquewhich orients dipoles with the field.Externallyapplied magnetic field is called themagnetic field strength, H (amperes/meter)
 
By convention, we say that the magneticfield lines leave theNorthend of a magnetand enter theSouthend of a magnet.
Magnetic field lines describe the structure of magnetic fields in three dimensions.
Dr. M. MedrajMech. Eng. Dept. -Concordia UniversityMECH 221 lecture 23/ 
6
Applied Magnetic Field
For a solenoid:H field creates magneticinductionB is the magneticinduction; the magnitudeof the internal field withina substance (in………)
 L NI  H 
=
Appliedmagnetic field Hcurrent IN turns totalL = length of each turn
current I
B = Magnetic Induction
 
Tesla. Scientists Can Be Famous, Too!Created by current through a coil
Dr. M. MedrajMech. Eng. Dept. -Concordia UniversityMECH 221 lecture 23/ 
7
Magnetic Field Parameters
 
µis the permeability of themedium (henries per meter)For a vacuum:
 H  B
=
μ 
=
μ 
0
µ
r
is the relative permeability
 B
0
=
μ 
0
 H 
µ
0
is the permeability of a vacuum
 M  H  B
00
μ 
+=
 
M is
magnetization
of the solid
Dr. M. MedrajMech. Eng. Dept. -Concordia UniversityMECH 221 lecture 23/ 
8
Magnetic Susceptibility
 M 
=
 χ 
m
 H 
 χ 
m
=
1
 x
m
is the magnetic……………. Itmeasures the material responserelative to a vacuum (
Dimensionless 
)
Diamagnetism
Paramagnetism
Ferromagnetism
Antiferromagnetism
Ferrimagnetism
 
Dr. M. MedrajMech. Eng. Dept. -Concordia UniversityMECH 221 lecture 23/ 
9
Magnetic Moments
Macroscopic properties are theresult of electron magneticmoments
Moments come from2 sources:
Orbital motion around a nucleus
Spinning around an axis
Fundamental Magnetic Moment:Bohr Magneton = 9.27*10
-24
A.m
2
.
Adapted from Fig. 20.4,
Callister 6e 
.
magnetic moments
electronelectronspin
nucleus
 
The net magnetic moment for an atom is the sum of themagnetic moments of constituent electronsAtoms with completely filled electron shells are incapablepermanent magnetizationAll materials exhibit some form of magnetization.Three types of response; ferro, diaand paramagnetic.
Dr. M. MedrajMech. Eng. Dept. -Concordia UniversityMECH 221 lecture 23/ 
10
Diamagnetism
Very weak and in opposite direction of applied fieldExists only during application of external fieldInduced by change in orbital motion of electronsFound in all materialsµ
r
slightly less than 1 and
χ
m
negativeThis form of magnetism is of no practical importance
Strength of applied magnetic field (H)(ampere-turns/m)diamagnetic(
χ
~ -10-5)vacuum(
χ
= 0)(1)
e.g., Al2O3, Cu, Au, Si, Ag, Zn
   M   a   g   n   e   t   i   c   i   n   d   u   c   t   i   o   n   (   B  -   t   e   s   l   a   )
 
Dr. M. MedrajMech. Eng. Dept. -Concordia UniversityMECH 221 lecture 23/ 
11
Paramagnetism
In some solids, atoms possespermanent dipole momentsDipoles align with external fieldEnhances external fieldIncreases µ
r
Strength of applied magnetic field (H)(ampere-turns/m)diamagnetic(
χ
~ -10-5)vacuum(
χ
= 0)(1)
   M   a   g   n   e   t   i   c   i   n   d   u   c   t   i   o   n   (   B  -   t   e   s   l   a   )
(2) Paramagnetism
e.g., Al, Cr, Mo, Na, Ti, Zr
 
Dr. M. MedrajMech. Eng. Dept. -Concordia UniversityMECH 221 lecture 23/ 
12
Ferromagnetism
No external field requiredVery large and permanent magnetizationsMoments primarily due to electron spinCoupling interaction causes adjacent atoms to alignOften found in transition metalsLarge
χ
m
, H<<M and B ~ µ
0
*M
 ferromagnetic e.g., Fe3O4, NiFe2O4e.g., ferrite(
α
), Co, Ni, Gd(3)(
χ
as large as 10
6
!!) ferromagnetic e.g., Fe3O4, NiFe2O4e.g., ferrite(
α
), Co, Ni, Gd(3)(
χ
as large as 10
6
!!)
Strength of applied magnetic field (H)(ampere-turns/m)diamagnetic(
χ
~ -10-5)vacuum(
χ
= 0)(1)
   M   a   g   n   e   t   i   c   i   n   d   u   c   t   i   o   n   (   B  -   t   e   s   l   a   )

Activity (7)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Nur Hafiza liked this
Nur Hafiza liked this
duchlpr liked this
Dipendra Yadav liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->