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Published by: احمد عقل on Jul 18, 2013
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FRACTURE TOUGHNESS AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PURE NIOBIUMAND WELDED JOINTS FOR SUPERCONDUCTING CAVITIES AT 4 K
K. Ishio, K. Kikuchi, J. Kusano, M.Mizumoto, K. Mukugi
#
, A. Naito,N. Ouchi, Y. Tsuchiya, JAERI, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1195,Japan, K. Saito, KEK, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken, 305-0801, Japan
 
#
On leave from Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO)E-mail:mukugi@linac.tokai.jaeri.go.jpIn the absence, please contactouchi@linac.tokai.jaeri.go.jp
 Abstract 
The joint project for high-intensity proton accelerators inKEK and JAERI has been proposed with thesuperconducting proton linac. Because of the reduced-
β
(v/c, Particle velocity relative to the speed of light) andsqueezed cavity shape, mechanical properties of cavitiesare very important. In this paper, the results of fracturetoughness and mechanical tests of pure niobium(RRR
200) plates (3-mm-thick) and welded joints forsuperconducting cavities at 4 K are reported.
1INTRODUCTION
Several mechanical properties of pure niobium (Nb) atlow temperatures have been investigated [1] [2] [3]. But,fracture toughness data that enable the quantitativeevaluation of the fracture behavior under the presence of aflaw are not available. In this paper, detailed results of fracture toughness tests at the liquid helium temperatureof 4 K and fractographic/microscopic analysis aredescribed, including the summary of the basic tensile andimpact test results.
2MATERIALS
The commercially available pure Nb plates with highRRR of over 200 for superconducting cavities weresupplied by TOKYO DENKAI (Lot 1:Sep. 30, 1996, Lot2:July 29, 1998) and prepared for the tests. Materials werecold-rolled and annealed at 750
°
C for 2 hours at thevender. Test specimens were wire cut from as receivedmaterials and joints were welded by using an ElectronBeam Welding (EBW) machine at the KEK workshop.The thickness of the materials is 3 mm and a weld beadwidth of the joint is about 5 mm. Table 1 shows thechemical composition of the material.Table 1: Chemical composition of the material
3
 
EXPERIMENTAL
3.1Tensile and Impact Tests
The mechanical properties, 0.2% yield strength (YS),ultimate tensile strength (TS) and elongation weremeasured at 4 K, 77 K and room temperature (RT). Figure1 and figure 2 summarize the tensile properties of twosamples tested.Figure 1: Summary of yield and tensile strength dataFigure 2: Summary of elongation data
ElementHONCTaFeWt %0.001max0.010.0040.0040.0950.003TiWSiMoZrNb0.0030.01max0.0020.005max0.01max99.85min
05010015020025030001002003004005006007008009001000
 
YS (Lot 1)TS (Lot 1)YS (Lot 2)TS (Lot 2)
    Y   S   (   M   P  a   )   T   S   (   M   P  a   )
Temperature (K)
0501001502002503000102030405060708090100Lot 1Lot 2
   E   l  o  n  g  a   t   i  o  n   (   %   )
Temperature (K)
 
The results of V-notch Charpy impact tests at 4 K, 77 Kand RT are summarized in figure 3. The thickness of testspecimens is 3 mm.Figure 3: Summary of V-notch Charpy impact tests
3.2Fracture Toughness Test 
Plane-strain fracture toughness tests of Lot 1 materialwere performed according to the ASTM E399-90 [4].Figure 4 shows the photograph of the test. In order for aresult to be considered valid to this method, it is requiredto satisfy the specifications; a size of specimen, crack length, fatigue pre-cracking condition, etc . The Appendixsummarizes the various specifications according to theASTM E399, E1737 [5] and BS7448 [6] with thedescriptions of detailed equations and symbols. As shownin figure 5, the shape of the test piece was made to becompact tension (CT) specimens of the half size, and thethickness was made to be 3 mm as of original thickness. Inmaking the plane-strain fracture toughness tests valid, thebiggest problem was an introduction of the fatigue pre-crack. The yield stress of this material at RT is 44 MPa.This means that the crack must be introduced in the verylow stress intensity at RT in order to satisfy Eq. 1, and thevery long term, which is unrealistic, is needed. 
f(max)
 
0.6 (
σ
y1
 / 
σ
y2
)×
Q
(1)The maximum stress intensity factors
f(max)
for thispresent test assuming
Q
=30 MPa·m
1/2
at 4 K are 1.8MPa·m
1/2
at RT and 19.1 MPa·m
1/2
at the liquid nitrogen(LN
2
) temperature of 77 K. Therefore, the introduction of the pre-crack was carried out at the LN
2
temperature with
f(max)
of 12.5
13.5 MPa·m
1/2
.Figure 6 and figure 7 show the load – displacement curvesof sample No.2 (Bulk Nb) and No.3 (Weld bead) obtainedin the fracture toughness test. In case of the sample No.1,it seemed the excessive compressive load caused theplastic deformation by the error operation. The result of this sample is needed to be treated carefully.On the basis of plane-strain criteria of Eq. 2, these resultsare revealed not valid, and applicable only for 3-mm-thick Nb materials.(2)For example, in the case of sample No.2, a 28-mm-thick plate is required for plane-strain conditions to apply.Table 2 summarizes the measured fracture toughness (
Q
),95 % secant load (
P
Q
) and crack length (
a
). Because theplain-stress evaluation was needed, the
 J 
c
calculation wasmade according to the ASTM E1737 [5] and BS7448 [6].Table 3 shows the plane-stress fracture toughness (
 J 
c
) andconverted toughness (
c
). Estimated
c
values are muchgreater than the
Q
values.Figure 4: Fracture toughness test at 4 KFigure 5: Shape of fracture toughness specimen (1/2 CT)
 6 0 °
        2        5
3
   1   4   3   0
10.5
   3   0   °
R0.12531.25
φ
6.31.5
 9 0 °
WB
a
crack 
Clip gageSpecimenSpecimenLoadLoad
2
5.2&
      
 ys IC 
a B
σ 
05010015020025030005101520253035404550Thickness = 3 mmLot 1Lot 2
   I  m  p  a  c   t  e  n  e  r  g  y  a   b  s  o  r   b  e   d   (   J   )
Temperature (K)
 
Figure 6: L
oad – displacement curve (No.2, Bulk Nb)
Figure 7: Load – displacement curve (No.3, Weld bead)Table 2: Fracture toughness
Q
(for 3 mm thickness)Table 3: Plane-stress fracture toughness
 J 
c
3.3Fractographic and metallographic analysis
Correlations between fracture and microstructure/fracturesurface were investigated by using metallographic andfractographic methods. Figure 8 shows the macroscopicfracture surfaces of samples No.1 to No.4. Figure 9 tofigure 13 show the magnified fracture surfaces of thesample No.2 and No.3 by using a scanning electronmicroscope (SEM). These fractographic analyses indicatebrittle and intergranular fracture mechanisms with thecleavage fracture surfaces.Figure 8: Fracture surfaces tested at 4 K
6Figure 9: Fracture surface of sample No.2 (Bulk Nb)X 270Figure 10: Cleavage fracture surface of sample No.2
0.00.51.01.52.02.50500100015002000250030003500400045005000
95 %SecantP
Q
=2697 NP
max
=2971 N
   L  o  a   d   (   N   )
Displacement (mm)
   R  o   l   l   i  n  g   d   i  r  e  c   t   i  o  n
0.00.51.01.52.02.50500100015002000250030003500400045005000
95 %SecantP
Q
=1716 NP
max
=2069 N
   L  o  a   d   (   N   )
Displacement (mm)
Weld bead (~5 mm)
NotchFatiguecrack FracturesurfaceNo.1No.4No.3No.2NotchFatiguecrack Fracture surface
No.ConditionK
Q
Load P
Q
Crack length aMPa•m
1/2
kN
cm1
Nb TL
(50.1)2.6801.2062
Nb LT
45.52.3701.2283
Weld bead
33.51.7201.2404
Weld bond
35.01.7651.256No.ConditionJ
c
Load P
max
K
c
 
(from
J
c
)
kJ/m
2
kN
MPa•m
1/2
1
Nb TL
(81.9)4.335(99.2)2
Nb LT
57.02.97182.83
Weld bead
40.32.06969.64
Weld bond
54.92.76581.3

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