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Equilibrium Point Analysis Linearization Technique

# Equilibrium Point Analysis Linearization Technique

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Equilibrium Point Analysis: Linearization Technique
Equilibrium Point Analysis: Linearization Technique

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12/05/2013

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Equilibrium Point Analysis: Linearization Technique
TARUN GEHLOT (B.E, CIVIL, HONOURS)
Recall that only the solutions of linear systems may be found explicitly. Theproblem is that in general real life problems may only be modeled bynonlinear systems. In this case, we only know how to describe the solutionsglobally (via nullclines). What happens around an equilibrium pointremains a mystery so far. Here we propose the to discuss this problem. Themain idea is to approximate a nonlinear system by a linear one (around theequilibrium point). Of course, we do hope that the behavior ofthesolutions of the linear system will be the same as the nonlinear one. This isthe case most of the time (not all the time!).
Example.
Consider the Van der Pol equationThis is a nonlinear equation. Let us translate this equation into a system.Set. Then we haveThe equilibrium points reduce to the only point (0,0). Let us find thenullclines and the direction of the velocity vectors along them.The x-nullcline is given byHence the x-nullcline is the x-axis.The y-nullcline is given by

Equilibrium Point Analysis: Linearization Technique
TARUN GEHLOT (B.E, CIVIL, HONOURS)
Hence the y-nullcline is the curve.In the picture below we draw the nullclines and direction of the velocityvectors along them.Note that the arrangement of these curves tell us that the solutions``circles'' around the origin. But it is not clear whether the solutions circleand dye at the origin, circle away from the origin, or keep on circlingperiodically. A very rough approach to this problem suggests that if werewrite the termas , then when (
x
,
y
) is close to (0,0), the termisvery small compared to -
x
+
y
. Hence a close system to the originalnonlinear system is

Equilibrium Point Analysis: Linearization Technique
TARUN GEHLOT (B.E, CIVIL, HONOURS)
which happens to be a linear system. The eigenvalues of this system are. Hence the solutions of the linear system spiral away from the origin (sincethe real partis positive). So we suggest that the solutions of nonlinear system spiralaway from the origin (look at the picture below)The solution started close to the equilibrium point, then it moved away.Notice that in this case, the trajectory is getting close to what looks like acycle. To better see this, let us consider the graphs of thefunction
x(t)
and
y(t)
:

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