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Such System Requires That Information

Such System Requires That Information

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Published by lamkakaka

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Published by: lamkakaka on May 15, 2009
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07/01/2009

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IEG4030-Tutorial 11
IEG4030-Tutorial 11
1.
 
Evolution of Lightwave Systems:First Generation: near 0.8
μ
m operating wavelength, GaAs semiconductor lasers, MM fiber, 45Mb/s bit rate, 10km repeaterspacing.Second Generation: 1.3
μ
m operating wavelength, InGaAsP semiconductor lasers, SM fiber, 2Gb/s bit rate, 50km repeaterspacing.Third Generation: 1.55
μ
m operating wavelength, DFB single frequency semiconductor lasers, SM fiber, up to 10Gb/s bitrate, 60-70km repeater spacing. Coherent detection is also studied in this stage.Fourth Generation: 1.55
μ
m operating wavelength, DFB semiconductor lasers, SM fiber, up to 10Gb/s bit rate, up to 100kmamplifier spacing. It makes use of 
optical amplification
for increasing the repeater spacing and of 
WDM technology
forincreasing the bit rate.
 Dispersion management technique
is also used due to large GVD of standard SMF in 1.55
μ
mwindow.Fifth Generation (under development): on the base of the fourth generation, it extends the wavelength range from C band1
 
IEG4030-Tutorial 11(1530
μ
m-1565
μ
m) to S band (1460
μ
m-1530
μ
m)+ C band(1530
μ
m-1565
μ
m)+L band (1565
μ
m-1625
μ
m). Raman amplifiercan be used to cover the three bands and it also help to reduce noise and improve SNR. Its single channel bit rate can be upto 40Gb/s.2
 
IEG4030-Tutorial 112.
 
Optical Fiber Communication System Limitation:
 Attenuation
: fiber loss, splitting loss, insertion losses, system power budget.
Solutions
: increasing transmitter power and receiver sensitivity, using optical amplifiers.
Chromatic Dispersion
:
pulse broadening
inter-symbol interference.
Solutions
: dispersion compensation and solitons.
 Nonlinear effects
: FWM, SRS, SBS, SPM, XPM
waveform distortion
power penalty.
Solutions
: power control, phase modulation; frequency assignment.
 Noise
: with various mechanisms, mainly about ASE added by optical amplifier
power penalty.
Solutions
: using optical filters, also optical regeneration (under research).
Polarization
: polarization dependent gain/loss, PMD, polarization sensitive
power penalty.
Solutions
: polarization diversity, using polarization-maintaining fibers (but too expensive).3

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