A genus of bacteria that includes several plant pathogenic species,causing tumour-like symptoms.
crown gall; hairy rootculture; Ri plasmid; Ti plasmid
An antigen that provokes an immune response.
-lactamase) A penicillin-derived antibiotic that prevents bacterial growth by interfering with synthesis of the cell wall.
A group of enzymes that degrade starch, glycogen and other polysaccharides, producing a mixture of glucose and maltose. Plants have both
-amylase; animalhave only
An organism that can grow in the absence of oxygen. Opposite:
The aseptic culture of anthers for the production of haploid plants frommicrospores.
androgenesis; gynogenesis; parthenogenesis.
A class of natural and synthetic compounds that inhibit the growth of or killsome micro-organisms. Antibiotics such as penicillin are often used to control (to someextent kill) contaminating organisms. However, resistance to particular antibiotics can beacquired through mutations. Some contaminating organisms are only suppressed or their metabolism slowed to an insignificant level.
antibiotic resistance; bactericide; bacteriostat.
The ability of a micro-organism to produce a protein that disablesan antibiotic or prevents transport of the antibiotic into the cell.
, against + body) An immunological protein (called animmunoglobulin, Ig) produced by certain white blood cells (lymphocytes) of the immunesystem of an organism in response to a contact with a foreign substance (antigen). Such155