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Glossary

Glossary

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Published by sofia03
Vectors for genetically modified crop development (Glossary)
Vectors for genetically modified crop development (Glossary)

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: sofia03 on May 15, 2009
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07/07/2010

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 Glossary
 
Glossary
 Agrobacterium
A genus of bacteria that includes several plant pathogenic species,causing tumour-like symptoms.
See
 
 Agrobacterium tumefaciens;
crown gall; hairy rootculture; Ri plasmid; Ti plasmid
.
Allergen
An antigen that provokes an immune response.
Ampicillin
(
β
-lactamase) A penicillin-derived antibiotic that prevents bacterial growth by interfering with synthesis of the cell wall.
Amylase
A group of enzymes that degrade starch, glycogen and other polysaccharides, producing a mixture of glucose and maltose. Plants have both
β
- and
α
-amylase; animalhave only
α
-amylase.
Anaerobe
An organism that can grow in the absence of oxygen. Opposite:
 
aerobe.
Anther culture
The aseptic culture of anthers for the production of haploid plants frommicrospores.
See
androgenesis; gynogenesis; parthenogenesis.
Antibiotic
A class of natural and synthetic compounds that inhibit the growth of or killsome micro-organisms. Antibiotics such as penicillin are often used to control (to someextent kill) contaminating organisms. However, resistance to particular antibiotics can beacquired through mutations. Some contaminating organisms are only suppressed or their metabolism slowed to an insignificant level.
See
antibiotic resistance; bactericide; bacteriostat.
Antibiotic resistance
The ability of a micro-organism to produce a protein that disablesan antibiotic or prevents transport of the antibiotic into the cell.
Antibody
(Gr.
anti
, against + body) An immunological protein (called animmunoglobulin, Ig) produced by certain white blood cells (lymphocytes) of the immunesystem of an organism in response to a contact with a foreign substance (antigen). Such155
 
an immunological protein has the ability of specifically binding with the foreignsubstance and rendering it harmless. The basic immunoglobulin molecule consists of twoidentical heavy and two identical light chains.
See
monoclonal antibodies; polyclonalantibodies.
Antisense RNA
An RNA sequence that is complementary to all or part of a functionalmRNA molecule, to which it binds, blocking its translation.
ARS
(autonomous replicating sequence) Any eukaryotic DNA sequence that initiatesand supports chromosomal replication; they have been isolated in yeast cells. Also calledautonomous(ly) replicating segment.
BAC
(bacterial artificial chromosome) A cloning vector constructed from bacterialfertility (F) factors; like YAC vectors, they accept large inserts of size 200 to 500 kb.
See
cloning vector; YAC.
Bacteriophage
A virus that infects bacteria. Also called simply phage.
Backcross
Crossing an organism with one of its parents or with the geneticallyequivalent organism. The offspring of such a cross are referred to as the backcrossgeneration or backcross progeny.
See
testcross.
 Bacillus thuringiensis
(Bt)
A bacterium that kills insects; a major component of themicrobial pesticide industry.
β
-galactosidase
An enzyme that catalyses the formation of glucose and galactose fromlactose.
Biological containment
Restricting the movement of (genetically engineered) organisms by arranging barriers to prevent them from growing outside the laboratory.
Blunt end
The end of a DNA duplex molecule in which neither strand extends beyondthe other. a.k.a. flush end.156

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