3Transports substances such as hormones and nutrients.4O
transport from lungs to body cells.5CO
transport in the opposite direction.6Dilutes toxic substances and waste products and transports them to the kidneysand the liver.7Distributes heat around the body Water in the body is in a constant state of motion. Shifting between the three majorfluid compartments of the body and in addition being continuously lost from, andtaken into, the person.In a normal, healthy human being WATER INPUT = WATER OUTPUT.Maintaining this ratio is of prime importance in maintaining health.Approximately 90% of the body's water intake comes via the gastro-intestinal tract.The remaining 10% is called metabolic water and is produced as the result of variouschemical reactions in the cells of the body's tissues.The normal healthy adult loses water via the route shown in table 3 below.
Table 3: Where water is lost from the body (healthy adult)
GASTRO-INTESTINALTRACT(FAECES)6%LUNGS(WATER VAPOUR)13%SKIN(DIFFUSION & SWEAT)19%KIDNEYS(URINE)62% The amount of water lost via the kidneys is under hormonal control. The averageamount of water lost and consumed per day is around 2.5 litres (approx. 4
pints)in a healthy adult.Body fluid is found in three different fluid compartments within the body. These are: