Madison believed that human nature was inherently self-interested and
that this would lead to factions that share common beliefs. Madison wanted
to make sure that the there would be no possibility that a tyrannous majority
faction could take rule. Madison feared that if a majority would have been
able to take controlthe new nation down a road that would go against all of
the hard work men like himself had put into forming a new government.
Hence, Madison proposed limiting majority control, separating the powers,
and creating checks and balances to make sure that no one\u2019s natural rights
that they are entitled to by human nature would be infringed upon.
congress would be elected by majority votes. Madison chose the House of
Representatives to be selected by majority vote, leaving the senate seats to
be elected by state legislatures, insuring that the majority would never have
total rule. The state legislatures would also choose a \u201cspecial electors\u201d (pg
46) that would vote in choosing the president. This was so that no majority
would be able to alienate a minority in any of the branches. This system
worked because if a majority gains control of the House of Representatives,
Madison favored separating the powers into three branches of
government. The president would preside over the executive branch,
congress would rule the legislative branch, and the courts would run the
judicial branch. Each branch would run independent of each other with the
intention that no one could control the others. As Madison envisioned the
\u201cpower was not divided absolutely, however; rather, it was shared among
the three institutions.\u201d (pg 47). Madison believed through this strategy, no
one branch could be compromised and still damage the entire system.
However the powers could never be completely independent,
therefore, there needed to be a way for each branch to check each other\u2019s
powers. This system of checking each other\u2019s powers was to fulfill Madison\u2019s
ambitions to \u201cset power against power\u201d(pg 47) and let it hold itself together.
The checks and balance system Madison supported allowed each branch to
keep checks on the other two. The president could veto a bill passed by
congress as well was nominate judges or issue pardons. Congress could re-
pass a bill over the president and must approve of the presidential
appointments. The courts could determine a law unconstitutional as well as
determine acts of the president unconstitutional.
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