Stages Of Growth & Development
(12 to 36months)Autonomy vs. sense of Shame & doubt(ages 1-3)
Newfound senseof independence as a result of having learned somebasic self-care skills— walking, feeding, and toileting.
Sensorimotor &Preconceptual Phase
- Appear mature but are really primitive;- Differentiation of self fromobjects—increased toleranceof separation from parents- Object permanence hasadvanced—increasingly awareof existence of objects of objects behind doors, indrawers, etc.- Domestic mimicry- Embryonic concept of time —a vagus concept- “Why?” and “How?’ predominate language.Kohlberg said nothing.- Associate God withsomething special- Assimilate behaviors(folding hands in prayer)associated with God- Comforted by spiritualroutines (bedtime prayers- Near end of toddler- hood,religious teachings such asreward and fear of punishment may influencetheir behavior -
—the toddler plays alongside, not withother children- Inspects toys; talks to toys;tests its strength anddurability- Invents uses for toys- Imitation is adistinguishing characteristicof play—engages in fantasy- Temper tantrums- Toilet training – voluntarysphincter control is achieved between 18 & 24 months of age. NOTE:
bowel training is usuallyaccomplished before bladder training because of its greater regularity and predictability.
- Negativism—persistent “no”answers
(4 to 7 years)
Initiative vs. Guilt
(ages 3-6) Child developsthe ability to initiate anddirect own activities.Because they are developinga super ego (conscience),conflicts arise from their desire to explore and thelimits placed upon them bycaregivers—leads to feelingof frustration and guilt
(2-7)- A shift from totallyegocentric thought to socialawareness occurs—ability toconsider another’s viewpoint begins. Egocentricity is stillevident.- Play is this child’s way of understanding, adjusting to,and working out life’sexperiences- Magical thinking—thoughtsare powerful—guilt may resultfrom bad thoughts or wishes- Words are accepted literally —“you are bad” means that “Iam a bad person,” not merelythat my actions were bad.
- Moral judgment is at itsmost basic level—littleconcern for why somethingis wrong.- Actions are directedtoward fulfilling their needsand less frequently the needof others.- These children have a veryconcrete sense of justice- fairness involves the philosophy of “you scratchmy back and I’ll scratchyours, “ with no thought of loyalty or gratitude.-Development of consciousis strongly linked tospiritual; development.Behave correctly to avoid punishment, guilt.-
—group play in similar or identicalactivities, but without rigidorganization or rules.Provides physical, social,and mental development,with refinement of motor skills.
jumping,running, and climbing, aswell as the use of tricycles,sports equipment,constructive and creativetoys, etc.-
Imitative, imaginativeand dramatic play
– probably the mostcharacteristic & persuasive preschool activity. For self expression; involves thereproduction of adult behavior. Toward the end of the preschool periodchildren want to do adultactivities not just pretend.- May begin to ask questionsabout sex.- Fear: of the dark; being alone;of animals; pain (and the objectsor persons associated with pain);ghosts; sexual matters; etc.- Inability to separate realityfrom fantasy may lead to fearsand anxieties—television programs may lead to animism.BY 5 or 6 they usually relinquishthese fears.- Susceptible to the effects of excess stress because of their inability to cope.- Some preschoolers are prone toacts of aggression; reinforcementcan shape aggressive behavior— to get attention—neg. or pos.- Modeling the behavior of significant others—this can begood or bad