Certain metals (e.g., pentavalent arsenic) andxenobiotics containing an
aldehyde, ketone, alkene,disulfide, sulfoxide, quinone,
hydroxamic acid,amidoxime, isoxazole, isothiazole, azo, or nitro group
are often reduced in vivo
Although it is sometimes difficult to ascertain whether
the reaction proceeds
enzymatically ornonenzymatically by interaction with reducing agents(such as the
reduced forms of glutathione, FAD, FMN,and NAD[P]).