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Tiananmen Square Massacre

Tiananmen Square Massacre

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Published by hexiecollege
Tiananmen Square Massacre
Tiananmen Square Massacre

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Published by: hexiecollege on May 16, 2009
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Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediahttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tiananmen_Square_protests...1 of 1526/11/2006 10:05 PM
Tiananmen Square protests of 1989
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The
Tiananmen Square protests of 1989
, also known as the
Tiananmen Square Massacre
,
 June 4th Incident 
, or the
PoliticalTurmoil between Spring and Summer of 1989
by the government of the People's Republic of China, were a series of demonstrations led bystudents, intellectuals and labour activists in the People's Republic of China between April 15, 1989 and June 4, 1989. The demonstrationscentred on Tiananmen Square in Beijing, but large scale protests alsooccurred in cities throughout China, such as in Shanghai.In Beijing, the resulting crackdown on the protestors by the PRCgovernment left many civilians dead, the figure ranging from 200–300(PRC government figures), to 2,000–3,000 (Chinese studentassociations and Chinese Red Cross), although the PRC governmentasserts and most independent observers agree that these deaths werenot in the square itself but rather in the streets leading to the square.
[1]
The protestors came from disparate groups, ranging from intellectuals who believed the Communist Party of China-led government was too corrupt and repressive, to urban workers who believed Chinese economic reform hadgone too far and that the resulting rampant inflation and widespread unemployment was threatening their livelihoods.After the protestors defied government calls to disperse, a split emerged within the Communist Party of China on howto respond to the protestors. Out of the party turmoil, a hardline faction emerged and the decision was made to quellthe protests, rather than to heed their demands.
[2]
On May 20, the government declared martial law and, on the night of June 3 and the early morning of June 4, armytanks and infantry were sent into Tiananmen Square to crush the protest and disperse the protestors. Estimates of civilian deaths vary: 23 (Communist Party of China), 400–800 (Central Intelligence Agency), 2600 (Chinese RedCross), 186 confirmed death by professor Ding ZiLin in Chinese (http://www.89-64.org/html/victims155.htm) .Injuries are generally held to have numbered from 7,000 to 10,000. Following the violence, the governmentconducted widespread arrests to suppress the remaining supporters of the movement, banned the foreign press andstrictly controlled coverage of the events in the PRC press. The violent suppression of the Tiananmen Square protestcaused widespread international condemnation of the PRC government.
[3]
Contents
1 Naming of incident2 Background3 Protests begin4 Protests escalate4.1 Nationwide protests4.1.1 Shanghai4.2 worldwide protests4.3 Media coverage5 The crackdown6 Number of deaths7 Aftermath7.1 Arrests and purges7.2 Media coverage7.3 Impact on domestic political trends7.4 Economic impact
The Unknown Rebel - This famous photo,taken by photographer Jeff Widener, depicts alone protester, whose actions halted theprogress of a column of advancing tanks untilhe was pulled into the crowd.
 
 
Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediahttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tiananmen_Square_protests...2 of 1526/11/2006 10:05 PM
History of the People's Republic of China
 
1949-1976 - The Mao Era
RevolutionKorean WarHundred Flowers CampaignAnti-Rightist MovementGreat Leap ForwardCultural RevolutionLin BiaoGang of FourTiananmen Incident 
1976-1989 - Era of Reconstruction
Economic reform 
Tiananmen protests
 
1989-2002 - A Rising Superpower
One Country, Two SystemsHong KongMacauChinese reunification 
2002-present - China Today
See also:
History of ChinaHistory of BeijingHistory of Shanghai
Prominent LeadersMao
-
Deng
-
Jiang
-
HuOther China topicsCulture
-
EconomyGeography
-
Politics
-
Education
China Portal
7.5 A generation gap8 The present8.1 Events after 19898.2 Taboo in China8.3 US-EU arms embargo8.4 Compensation9 The Future10 See also11 Footnotes12 References13 External links
Naming of incident
The incident is named after the location of the movement in Tiananmen Square,Beijing. Some historians also call it "the Beijing massacre".In the Chinese language, the incident is most commonly known as the
JuneFourth Movement
(Simplified Chinese:
¢¡¤£¦¥
; Traditional Chinese:
§©¨
) or
 June Fourth Event 
(Chinese:
¢¡
). The former is in conformitywith the other two great protest actions that occurred on Tiananmen Square: theMay Fourth Movement of 1919, and the April Fifth Movement of 1976. Insome contexts, "June Fourth Movement" refers more generally to all the studentand civil unrest which occurred throughout China, in addition to the events inBeijing and specifically Tiananmen Square.
Background
Since 1978, Deng Xiaoping had led a series of economic and political reformswhich had led to the gradual implementation of a market economy and somepolitical liberalization that relaxed the system set up by Mao Zedong. By early1989, these economic and political reforms had led two groups of people tobecome dissatisfied with the government.The first group included students and intellectuals, who believed that thereforms had not gone far enough and that China needed to reform its politicalsystems, since the economic reforms had only affected farmers and factoryworkers; the incomes of intellectuals lagged far behind those who had benefitedfrom reform policies. They were concerned about the social and politicalcontrols that the Communist Party of China still had. In addition, this groupsaw the political liberalization that had been undertaken in the name of glasnostby Mikhail Gorbachev. The second group were those, including urbanindustrial workers, who believed that the social and political reforms had gonetoo far. The loosening of economic control had begun to cause inflation andunemployment, which threatened their livelihood.
 
Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediahttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tiananmen_Square_protests...3 of 1526/11/2006 10:05 PM
In 1989, the primary supporters of the government were ruralpeasants who had seen their incomes increase considerably duringthe 1980s as a result of the Party's reforms. However, this supportwas limited in usefulness because rural peasants were distributedacross the countryside. In contrast to urban dwellers who wereorganized into schools and work units, peasant supporters of thegovernment remained largely unorganized and difficult to mobilize.The Tiananmen Square protests in 1989 were in large measuresparked by the death of former Secretary General Hu Yaobang. HuYaobang's "resignation" from the position of Secretary General of the CPC had been announced on January 16, 1987. His forthrightcalls for "rapid reform and his almost open contempt of Maoistexcesses" had made him a suitable scapegoat in the eyes of DengXiaoping and others, after the pro-democracy student protests of 1986–1987 (Spence 1999, 685). Included in his resignation was alsoa "humiliating self-criticism", which he was forced to issue by the Central Committee of the Communist Party. HuYaobang's sudden death, due to heart attack, on April 15, 1989 provided a perfect opportunity for the students togather once again, not only to mourn the deceased Secretary General, but also to have their voices heard in"demanding a reversal of the verdict against him" and bringing renewed attention to the important issues of the1986–1987 pro-democracy protests and possibly also to those of the Democracy Wall protests in 1978–1979 (Spence1999, 697).
Protests begin
Protests started out on a small scale, in the form of mourning for Hu Yaobang anddemands that the party revise their official view of him. The protests gainedmomentum after news of confrontation between students and police spread; thebelief by students that the Chinese media was distorting the nature of theiractivities also led to increased support. At Hu's funeral, a large group of studentsgathered at Tiananmen Square and requested, but failed, to meet premier Li Peng,widely regarded to be Hu's political rival. Thus students called for a strike inuniversities in Beijing. On April 26, an editorial in People's Daily, following aninternal speech made by Deng Xiaoping, accused the students of plotting civilunrest. The statement enraged the students, and on April 29 about 50,000 studentsassembled on the streets of Beijing, disregarding the warning of a crackdownmade by authorities and demanded that the government revoke the statement.In Beijing, a majority of students from the city's numerous colleges and universities participated with support of theirinstructors and other intellectuals. The students rejected official Communist Party-controlled student associations andset up their own autonomous associations. The students viewed themselves as Chinese patriots, as the heirs of theMay Fourth Movement for "science and democracy" of 1919. The protests also evoked memories of the TiananmenSquare protests of 1976 which had eventually led to the ousting of the Gang of Four. From its origins as a memorialto Hu Yaobang, who was seen by the students as an advocate of democracy, the students' activity gradually developedover the course of their demonstration from protests against corruption into demands for freedom of the press and anend to, or the reform of the rule of the PRC by the Communist Party of China and Deng Xiaoping, the
de facto
paramount Chinese leader. Partially successful attempts were made to reach out and network with students in othercities and with workers.Although the initial protests were made by students and intellectuals who believed that the Deng Xiaoping reformshad not gone far enough and China needed to reform its political systems, they soon attracted the support of urbanworkers who believed that the reforms had gone too far. This occurred because the leaders of the protests focused onthe issue of corruption, which united both groups, and because the students were able to invoke Chinese archetypes of the selfless intellectual who spoke truth to power.Unlike the Tiananmen protests of 1987, which consisted mainly of students and intellectuals, the protests in 1989commanded widespread support from the urban workers who were alarmed by growing inflation and corruption. InBeijing, they were supported by a large number of people. Similar numbers were found in major cities throughoutmainland China such as Urumqi, Shanghai and Chongqing; and later in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Chinese
An anonymous drawing posted in a pedestrianwalkway underneath Chang An Avenuecaricatures Deng Xiaoping (seated behind thelectern) as an old Chinese emperor.Sing Democracy to China inHong Kong

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