Reduction of global in-plane irradiation due to obstruction of terrain horizon and PVmodules,
Proportion of global irradiation that is reflected by surface of PV modules (typically glass),
Losses in PV modules due to conversion of solar radiation to DC electricity; deviation of module efficiency from STC,
DC losses: this step assumes integrated effect of mismatch between PV modules, heatlosses in interconnections and cables, losses
due to dirt, snow, icing and soiling, and self-shading of PV modules,
This step considers euro efficiency to approximate average losses in the inverter,
Losses in AC section and transformer (where applicable) depend on the systemarchitecture,
Availability parameter assumes losses due to downtime caused by maintenance orfailures.
Various losses under consideration
The estimated system losses are all the losses in the system, which cause the power actuallydelivered to the electricity grid to be lower than the power produced by the PV modules. There areseveral causes for this loss, such as losses in cables, power inverters, dirt (sometimes snow) on themodules, ambient temperature, varying insolation levels and so on. While designing a PV system, wehave to take into consideration all possible losses.
PV module power ratings are determined at standard test conditions, which require perpendicularincident light. Under field conditions larger incidence angles occur, resulting in higher reflectionlosses than accounted for in the nominal power rating. Calculations show that for modules facedtowards the equator, and with a tilt angle equal to the latitude, yearly reflection losses relative toSTC are about 1%.
Soiling of solar panels can occur as a result of dust and dirt accumulation. In most cases, the materialis washed off the panel surface by rainfall; however dirt like bird droppings may stay even afterheavy rains. The most critical part of a module is the lower edge. Especially with rather lowinclinations, soiling at the edge of the frame occurs. By often repeated water collection in theshallow puddle between frame and glass and consecutive evaporation dirt accumulates. Once itcauses shading of the cells, this dirt reduces the available power from a module. The losses aregenerally 1%, however the power is restored if the modules are cleaned.