manganese, and phosphorus. The post combustion of carbon monoxideas it exits the vessel also transmits heat back to the bath. The product of the BOS is molten steel with a specified chemicalanlaysis at 2900°F-3000°F. From here it may undergo further refining ina secondary refining process or be sent directly to the continuouscaster where it is solidified into semifinished shapes: blooms, billets, orslabs.
refers to the magnesia (MgO) refractory lining which wearsthrough contact with hot, basic slags. These slags are required toremove phosphorus and sulfur from the molten charge.BOF heat sizes in the U.S. are typically around 250 tons, and tap-to-taptimes are about 40 minutes, of which 50% is "blowing time". This rateof production made the process compatible with the continuous castingof slabs, which in turn had an enormous beneficial impact on yieldsfrom crude steel to shipped product, and on downstream flat-rolledquality.
II BASIC OPERATION
BOS process replaced open hearth steelmaking. The process predatedcontinuous casting. As a consequence, ladle sizes remained unchangedin the renovated open hearth shops and ingot pouring aisles were builtin the new shops. Six-story buildings are needed to house the BasicOxygen Furnace (BOF) vessels to accommodate the long oxygen lancesthat are lowered and raised from the BOF vessel and the elevated alloyand flux bins. Since the BOS process increases productivity by almostan order of magnitude, generally only two BOFs were required toreplace a dozen open hearth furnaces.Some dimensions of a typical 250 ton BOF vessel in the U.S. are:height 34 feet, outside diameter 26 feet, barrel lining thickness 3 feet,and working volume 8000 cubic feet. A control pulpit is usually locatedbetween the vessels. Unlike the open hearth, the BOF operation isconducted almost "in the dark" using mimics and screens to determinevessel inclination, additions, lance height, oxygen flow etc.Once the hot metal temperature and chemical analaysis of the blastfurnace hot metal are known, a computer charge models determinethe optimum proportions of scrap and hot metal, flux additions, lanceheight and oxygen blowing time.