ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
The pelvic girdle is the place where the lower limbs attach to the body. The right andleftcoxae, or hip bones, join each other anteriorly and the sacrum posteriorly, to form a ring of bonecalled the pelvic girdle and the coccyx. The sacrum and the coccyx form part of the pelvisbutare also part of the axial skeleton. Each coxa formed by the three bones fused to oneanother toform a single bone. The ilium is the most superior, the ischium is the inferior and thepubis is theanterior and inferior. An iliac crest can be seen alongthe superior margin of eachilium and ananterior iliac spine, an important hip landmark, is located at the anterior end of theiliac crest.The coxae join each other anteriorly at the pubic symphysis and join the sacrumposteriorly at thesacro ilac joints. The acetabulum is the socket of the hip joint. The obturator foramen is the largehole in each coxa that is closed off by muscles and other structures.