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Valve NACE

Valve NACE

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Published by sre_eram4160
Valves, Safety, Testing, SIL, NACE
Valves, Safety, Testing, SIL, NACE

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Published by: sre_eram4160 on Jul 23, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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and the Valve Industr
Valve producers are ofterequired to supply valves in materials that meet NACStandard MR0175, SulfidStress Cracking Resistant Me- tallic Materials for Oilfield Equipment. Despite the fre- quency with which MR0175 is specified, there is quite a lot of confusion regarding the docu- ment and its application to products. This article uses a question and answer format to cover some of the more com- mon questions and issues re- garding MR0175, as well as some of the less obvious pit- falls that can affect the valve industry.(Note: The information con- tained in this article repre- sents the views of the author,and has not been reviewed or endorsed by NACE.) 
by Don Bush
In 1963, NACE Technical Committee T-1B which had origi-nally formed in 1959 as an informal group of corrosion engi-neers, released Publication 1B163,
Recommendations on Materials for Sour Service 
, which included several tentative specifica-tions, including Tentative NACE Specification 150 on valves.In 1968, the T-1F Task Group released NACE Recommenda-tion 1F166,
Sulfide Cracking-Resistant Metallic Materials for Valvefor Production and Pipeline Service 
. After several years of work todevelop a standard on materials selection, T-1F-1 released theoriginal version of MR0175, entitled
Materials for Valves for Resistance to Sulfide Stress Cracking in Production and Pipeline Ser- vice 
, in 1975. The Texas Railroad Commission adoptedMR0175 as an equipment requirement in 1976, which promptedthe revision of MR0175 to be more general
. The new versionwas released in 1978 under the title Sulfide Stress CrackingResistant Metallic Material for Oilfield Equipment.
The “swas added to “Materials” in the 1984 revision.
 The MR” stands for “Material Requirements. The 75stands for the year 1975. The “01” indicates it was the first “Ma-terial Requirements” standard issued in 1975 by NACE. Thisscheme is used for all NACE standards, including Recom-mended Practices (beginning with “RP”) and Test Methods (be-ginning with “TM”).
NACE International is a technical society concerned withcorrosion and corrosion-related issues. NACE used to stand forthe “National Association of Corrosion Engineers”, but thename of the society was changed to “NACE International” sev-eral years ago to signify the international scope of NACE mem-bership and activities. Within the new name, “NACE” doesn’tstand for anything. NACE activities include technology ex-change, publication of corrosion and corrosion-related informa-tion, standards development and publication, educational ser-vices, and other activities to aid in the advancement of corro-sion control.
NACE MR0175,
Sulfide Stress Cracking Resistant MetalliMaterials for Oilfield Equipment 
, is a standard issued by NACE Task Group T-1F-1 to provide guidelines for the selection omaterials that are resistant to failure in hydrogen sulfide-con-taining oil and gas production environments.
NACE’s technical committees are arranged in fourteen groupcommittees that deal with either corrosion problems in a spe-cific industry or with a particular type of corrosion mechanism.For example, the T-1 Committee deals with petroleum produc-tion issues, T-8 works on the refining industry problems, and T-5 covers the process industry. The Group Committees are fur-ther divided into Unit Committees, which focus on more spe-cific tasks. For example, two of the Unit Committees under T-1are T-1F,
Metallurgy of Oilfield Equipment 
(approximately 325members in 1995), and T-1G,
Protective Coatings, Elastomers,and Other Nonmetallics for Oilfield Sealing Service 
. Task Groupsworking under the direction of the Unit Committees work onspecific projects. The T-1F-1 Task Group,
Sulfide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials for Oilfield Equipment 
, is the task groupthat originally developed the MR0175 document, and is nowresponsible for its maintenance. Examples of other T-1F TaskGroups include T-1F-9,
Metallic Materials Testing Techniques for Sulfide Corrosion Cracking 
, T-1F-22,
Criteria for Inclusion oMaterials in NACE Standard MR0175 
, and T-1F-24,
Performance of Fabrication and Repair Weldments in H 
S Environments.
What is Sulfide Stress Cracking
According to NACE MR0175, sulfide stress cracking is de-fined as “brittle failure by cracking under the combined actionof tensile stress and corrosion in the presence of water and H
S.Actually, sulfide stress cracking is a special case of hydrogenembrittlement that occurs when H
S dissociates, in the pres-ence of water, into hydrogen and sulfide ions. Diffusion of hy-drogen into the metal is catalyzed by the presence of the sulfideions, promoting hydrogen embrittlement. As such, all materialsthat are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement are very suscep-tible to sulfide stress cracking. In addition, some metals that areresistant to other forms of hydrogen embrittlement are suscep-tible to sulfide stress cracking. The term sulfide stress cracking, or SSC, is used most com-monly in the oil and natural gas production industry. This termleads to some confusion, since the sulfide ion is not actually theembrittling species. The refining industry prefers the term “wetH
S cracking”, which is actually a more accurate designation.NACE MR0175 defines the term “sour” as a fluid containingwater as a liquid and H
S exceeding particular limits.
What are the factors affecting sulfide stress cracking sus- ceptibility? 
 There are actually quite a number of factors affecting the sus-ceptibility of a material to sulfide stress cracking. NACEMR0175 paragraph 1.3 lists the following factors:1. Chemical composition, strength, heat treatment and mi-crostructure of the material; Certain compositional elements(for example, nickel in steels) have been identified as SSCpromoters. Within a particular alloy, as strength (and hard-ness) increase, the susceptibility to sulfide stress cracking in-creases.2. Hydrogen ion concentration (pH) of the process environ-ment.3. H
S concentration and total pressure (or, H
S partial pres-sure) of the process environment.4. Total tensile stress (accounting for both applied and re-sidual stresses).5. Process temperature.6. Exposure Time.
What is the “NACE test” that can be done to certify that a material meets NACE MR0175? 
 This is a common misconception regarding NACE MR0175. There is no NACE test” that can be used to certify that a ma-terial meets MR0175. MR0175 is essentially a listing of materi-als that have been deemed “acceptable”. Acceptable materialsare always listed with some type of hardness requirement, andthere are often other stipulations regarding hot- or cold-work-ing, heat treat conditions, etc.
How are new materials added to MR0175? 
 The addition of a new material is one type of technical changeto MR0175. All technical changes, i.e., changes other than edi-torial, are made by a ballot process:1. The proposed change and supporting data are sent toNACE Headquarters.2. The T-1F-1 committee reviews the proposed ballot item. Ithe proposal is judged to be acceptable, a liaison is assigned tohelp the submitter with the ballot information and the votingprocess.3. The ballot item is reviewed at the next Corrosion confer-ence (held every spring) so the ballot item submitter can learnof concerns that may be raised by voters during the upcomingballot.4. The ballot is mailed to all NACE Unit Committee T-1Fmembers (approximately 325 in 1995).5. In order for a ballot item to pass, all votes must be positiveor abstaining, and all negative votes must be either resolved ordetermined to be incomplete. A negative vote can be resolvedby supplying additional information as requested by the nega-tive voter, or by modifying the proposed change to satisfy thenegative voter’s concern. Modifications are only allowed if theymake the wording more restrictive than the original ballot re-quest. Examples would include reducing the maximum allow-able hardness, adding a maximum temperature where one wasnot originally listed, or only allowing the material to be used forcertain components or applications. In order to be complete, anegative vote must include a written technical reason for thenegative vote, accompanied by a statement regarding whetherit is possible to resolve the negative, and what actions are re-quired by the ballot item submitter to attain resolution.6. After all negatives are either resolved or determined to beincomplete, the item is forwarded to the NACE T-1F, T-1, and TPC Chairmen for final approval.7. The revision is published in NACE’s monthly publication,
Materials Performance 
, and included in the next revision of thestandard. There are two options available to the ballot item submitterif there are negative votes that cannot be resolved:1. A request can be made with the T-1 chairman for a UnitOverride Ballot. In effect, information supplied by the ballotitem submitter and the negative voter(s) is sent to all T-1 (note:not just T-1F) members. In order for the negative(s) to be over-ridden, two-thirds of all non-abstaining voters must vote to over-ride the negative(s).2. The item can be re-balloted in the following year, in whichcase only 90% of the non-abstaining votes must be positive inorder for the item to pass. In order to be considered a re-ballot,the wording of the item cannot change from the previous bal-lot. However, additional supporting data can be supplied withthe ballot information.
How long does it take to complete the ballot process? 
Proposed ballot items must be submitted to NACE Head-quarters no later than January 31 of a given year. The ballotitems are reviewed at the annual Corrosion conference, afterwhich they are mailed (in April or May) to all of the T-1F mem-bers for voting. The voters have six weeks to return their bal-lots, after which NACE headquarters will spend two to fourweeks processing them. The results are then mailed to the bal-lot item submitters. If there are negatives to resolve, the ballotitem submitters have thirteen months from the mailing date toobtain resolution.From the time the proposed ballot is submitted to NACE, itcan take anywhere from five months (if there are no negatives)

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