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DoD Installation Energy Fact Sheet

DoD Installation Energy Fact Sheet

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Military installations are important for preparing, training and housing warfighters. These bases are the staging grounds for emergency response scenarios such as responding to natural disasters. They are therefore critical to national security.

The U.S. Department of Defense owns and operates nearly 300,000 buildings at home and abroad. To power the 2.3 billion square feet of space, DoD relies on the civilian power grid for 99% of its electricity needs.

A disruption of electric power – whether from a natural disaster, a cyber attack, or simply a grid malfunction – would interfere with mission preparedness.

DoD is undertaking ambitious efforts to install renewable energy and energy storage at its military installations. This fact sheet details some of the military’s efforts to improve resiliency and redundancy on its bases through clean energy.
Military installations are important for preparing, training and housing warfighters. These bases are the staging grounds for emergency response scenarios such as responding to natural disasters. They are therefore critical to national security.

The U.S. Department of Defense owns and operates nearly 300,000 buildings at home and abroad. To power the 2.3 billion square feet of space, DoD relies on the civilian power grid for 99% of its electricity needs.

A disruption of electric power – whether from a natural disaster, a cyber attack, or simply a grid malfunction – would interfere with mission preparedness.

DoD is undertaking ambitious efforts to install renewable energy and energy storage at its military installations. This fact sheet details some of the military’s efforts to improve resiliency and redundancy on its bases through clean energy.

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Published by: The American Security Project on Jul 23, 2013
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www.AmericanSecurityProject.org1100 New York Avenue, NW Suite 710W Washington, DC
Powering Military Bases:
DoD’s Installation Energy Eorts
By Andrew Holland, Nick Cunningham, Kaitlyn Huppmann, and William Joyce
 July 2013
Introduction
Te U.S. Department o Deense (DoD) is the largest single consumer o energy in the world.
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 Te largest share o DoD’s consumption is or operational energy – the energy used to ght,train and transport the orce. Tis is mostly composed o petroleum based liquid uel.Oten overlooked, however, is that the military is also a large consumer o energy on itsbases. Known as “installation energy,” this is the power that DoD uses to heat and cool itsbuildings, electriy its operations, and to operate eets o non-tactical vehicles.Te U.S. military’s vast energy needs leave it vulnerable to price volatility and supply disruptions. Currently, back-up power is provided on bases primarily by diesel generators, which have their own vulnerabilities.o mitigate these vulnerabilities, the military is undertaking a variety o initiatives to increaserenewable energy generation. Te stated objective o building out substantial renewableenergy capacity is to increase installation resilience in the ace o unknown events. PresidentObama recently reafrmed DoD’s goal o building 3 gigawatts o renewable energy onmilitary installations by 2025 as part o his administrations Climate Action Plan.
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 Tis act sheet explores how DoD is working to improve the management and production o installation energy rom clean sources. It is not a ull catalog o every initiative or installation;instead it outlines the top installation energy priorities or the military and the progress madein achieving those goals.
 
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 AMERICAN SECURITY PROJECT
 Why Are Leaders Focused on Installation Energy?
Fixed military installations support the warghter both at home and abroad. Tey are critical to missionpreparedness, training and housing warghters in all services o the military. Military bases are the staging ground or emergency response scenarios such as responding to natural disasters or terrorist attacks. Tey arethe operational bases or many critical national security missions.It is important, thereore, or national security that military bases have assured access to the energy they needto meet their missions. However, military installations are also large consumers o energy. Energy consumed atDoD’s installations accounts or almost 1% o total energy consumption in the United States.
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 Importantly, the goal o DoD’s energy initiatives is not to separate military bases rom the national grid; it isto increase the resilience o both. Private sector utilities, public power districts, and local cooperatives remaincentral to the military’s missions. Te ability to generate renewable power on base combined with investmentsin a smarter grid can help the resilience o both the military and the civilian national grid.
Cost 
•
DoD operates over 500 installations in the U.S. and abroad.
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•
Te DoD operates nearly 300,000 buildings, covering 2.3 billion square eet o space. Tat is threetimes larger than Walmart and six times greater than the General Services Administration (GSA).
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•
Te energy costs or installations or FY2011 are estimated at $4.1 billion, comprising 26% o DoD’soverall energy expenditure.
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Mission Assurance
•
DoD installations rely on the commercial power grid or 99% o their electricity needs.
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Tis is ap-propriate because the military is not a utility.
•
 A disruption o electric power to military bases – whether rom a natural disaster, a physical or cyberattack, or simply a grid malunction – would interere with mission preparedness.
•
Currently, in the event o a loss o power, installations are dependent upon backup diesel generatorsto ensure steady access to electricity.
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On average these installations have only 3-7 days o backup uel,and have not planned or the potential or a long-term loss o power.
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How Can the Military Alleviate Tese Treats?
•
DoD plans to scale up renewable energy and energy storage on bases.
•
By using distributed generation, bases will be able to “island” – or separate – bases rom the commer-cial power grid in the event o a supply disruption.
•
 As o now, the “microgrids” that will allow this are not widespread, but they will mark a cornerstoneo DoD’s eorts at improving energy security or its installations.
 
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•
By the end o FY2011, DoD had a total o 44 installations in the U.S. with plans or microgrids, orthat have conducted microgrid studies or demonstrations.
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•
Tese microgrids range rom demand response and small solar PV arrays that work in conjunction with the commercial grid, to higher concentrations o solar PV with energy storage that can separaterom the commercial grid when necessary.
Te Role of Microgrids in Improving Energy Security 
•
 Advanced microgrids with renewable energy can enhance energy security and help assure mission e-ectiveness in the event o power interruptions or demand surges.
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•
oday, no bases operate using solely renewable energy. With a microgrid, renewable energy with en-ergy storage can signicantly extend islanding time in the event o a power outage.
•
I power is cut o to an installation, microgrids can automatically prioritize mission critical activities,and shed less important uses o power.
•
Microgrids can also improve the resiliency o the civilian power grid by allowing military bases toautomatically shut down non-critical systems during commercial demand spikes. Tis would allow utilities greater exibility in managing power loads.
 What Has DoD Done So Far?
Te Energy Independence and Security Act o 2007 requires the ederal government – including DoDacilities – to reduce energy use in its buildings by 30% by FY2015.
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Te John Warner National Deense Authorization Act or Fiscal Year 2007 mandates DoD obtain 25% o its electricity rom renewable sources by 2025.
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In 2012, the Deense Department made a commitment to install 3 gigawatts o renewable generating capacity, one rom each o the Army, Navy, and Air Force Installations by 2025.
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 As o FY2011, DoD achieveda 13.3% reduction in energy intensity at its acilities rom a 2003 baseline.
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•
 As o FY2011, DoD producedor procured 8.5% o its totalacility electricity consump-tion rom renewable energy.
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•
Te Navy’s large 270 megawattChina Lake geothermal acil-ity alone accounts o nearly three quarters o the military’srenewable energy capacity.

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