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Lab 3: Computer Simulation of Cardiovascular Dynamics 1. Circulatory

Lab 3: Computer Simulation of Cardiovascular Dynamics 1. Circulatory



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Published by mcwnotes

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Published by: mcwnotes on May 17, 2009
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Lab 3: Computer Simulation of Cardiovascular Dynamics1.Circulatory Pause (stop the flow of blood)a.What happens when the heart suddenly stops? Arterial pressure goes to 7 mm Hg, venous pressure goes to 7 mm Hg b.Arterial pressure decreasesVenous pressure increasesc.Mean filling pressure is the pressure at NO FLOW
7 mm Hg2.Hemorrhagea.Role of the Central Nervous System1000 mlCNS inactive1000 mlCNS Active1500 mlCNS ActiveArterial pressureCardiac outputHeart rateL EDV (end diastolicvolume)L ESV (end systolicvolume)Mean systemic filling pressureR atria
l pressure01-1Stroke volumeSystemic resistance3.Cardiac Preloada.Effect of infusing saline (increasing preload)Ratio of compliances
 The steady state PV loop marked A in the figure above corresponds to which of the following?A. A patient with reduced contractility and no compensationB. A patient with reduced contractility after volume retentionC. A patient with decreased contractility and decreased afterloadD. A patient with normal contractility and increased afterloadE. A patient with increased contractility and increased afterloadExplanation: an increase in the height of the loop corresponds to an increase in afterload. The shift tothe left (decrease in end systolic volume) indicates an increased contractility. Thus, the correct answeris E, increased contractility and increased afterload.In the cardiovascular computer simulation, hemorrhage with no neural reflexes resulted in which of thefollowing?A. An increase in sinus rate.B. A decrease in left ventricular end diastolic volume.C. An increase in left ventricular end systolic volume.D. An increase in mean systemic pressure.E. No change in mean arterial blood pressure.Explanation: in hemorrhage, there is a decrease in blood volume that causes a decrease in meansystemic pressure (Psf). This decreased Psf decreases cardiac output and lowers pressure. In theabsence of reflexes, there are no rapid accommodations to this change and we see a decrease in leftventricular volume (the correct answer). Sinus rate would not change because there is no change insympathetic or parasympathetic activity to the heart. Blood pressure would drop because of nocompensation. This drop in afterload would result in a decrease in left ventricular end systolic volume.In the cardiovascular computer simulation, an experiment was performed in which the heart wasstopped in the absence of any reflexes. Arterial pressure fell and venous pressure increased. The ratioof the fall in arterial pressure to the rise in venous pressure was:A. dependent on the contractile state of the heart.B. approximately equal to the ratio of venous compliance to arterial compliance.C. equal to the blood volume in the arteries divided by the blood volume in the veins.D. 10 to 1.E. 100 to 1.Explanation: when the heart stopped, no more blood was being pumped out of the venous side and intothe arterial side. Since blood continues to flow from arteries to veins, blood accumulates on the venousside. The same amount of blood leaves the arterial side as fills the venous side. Since the change inpressure is equal to the change in volume divided by compliance, and since the change in volume onboth sides is opposite, the ratio of the change in pressure is equal to the ratio of the compliances, orabout 25 to 1.In a normal heart, an acute increase in systolic aortic blood pressure of 15 mmHg is most likely toresult in which of the following immediate changes.A. Decreased left ventricular end diastolic pressure.B. Increased left ventricular end systolic pressure.C. Pulmonary edema with elevated right atrial pressure.D. Systemic hypotension and reduced preload.E. Reduced right atrial pressure and increased cardiac output.Explanation: an increase in systolic blood pressure causes blood to accumulate in the heart at the endof systole. This results in an increase in end systolic pressure. End diastolic pressure may also increasevery slightly. This modest increase in afterload would not result in pulmonary edema. The increased

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