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manual of water supply

manual of water supply

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Published by Siva Senthil
manual of water supply
manual of water supply

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Published by: Siva Senthil on Jul 24, 2013
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 Handbook on Works Audit -Water supplyOffice of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai
1
HANDBOOKONWATER SUPPLY
 
 Handbook on Works Audit -Water supplyOffice of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai
2
Water Supply and Treatment
1. PREAMBLE
Tamil Nadu Water Supply Drainage board (TWAD) is responsible for executionof Water Supply Schemes / Drainage Schemes in Corporations, Municipalities,Panchayats, Villages in the entire State of Tamil Nadu except Chennai City whereChennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board (CMWSSB) is executing thework.Government of India Ministry of Urban Development, Central Public Health and Environment Engineering Organisation published a Manual known as " Manual on Water Supply and Treatment ". This Manual has laid down the basic principles relating to planning, identification of sources of water, development and transmission, water treatment, distribution system testing and other related administrative aspects and alsoexplain in details the proper approach to each problem.The salient points relevant to audit together with various orders of Governmentand TWAD Board and audit approaches are given below. The CPHEEO Manual provisions indicated are with reference to the 1999 Publications.
2. PROJECT FORMULATION
The objectives of any Water Supply System is to supply safe wholesome water inadequate quantity at convenient points and at reasonable cost to the users. In order toencourage personal and household hygiene proper planning is necessary in theformulation and implementation of water supply projects.Engineering decisions are required to fix the area and population to be served, thedesign period, the per capita water supply, the water required for the other needs in thearea, the nature and location of facilities to be provided and points of water supplyintake and waste water disposal.Detailed investigation should be carried out in regard to nature of each source(surface or subsurface) its reliability for quality and quantity, the nature of developmentand type of treatment required and mode of the conveyance from the source to theconsumers. Different alternatives should be considered in detail and the economicallyviable and technically feasible alternative should be selected by applying financialanalysis techniques.Four stages are involved in the formulation of a water supply project before the project is taken up for execution. They area.
 
Preparation of preliminary report b.
 
Conducting detailed Engineering survey
 
 Handbook on Works Audit -Water supplyOffice of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai
3
c.
 
Preparation of Project Report.d.
 
Preparation of detailed plans and estimates.
Preliminary report
The report should include a brief description about the topography,geological and hydro geological features of the community, existing water supplyarrangement and need for the project. Further the report should discuss and include the following aspects also.i.
 
Identification of the area to be served with details of present population, existing water supply and sanitation facilities.ii.
 
Identification of the water requirement for various needs.iii.
 
Estimation of water requirement for various needs.iv.
 
Identification of the possible alternate projects and rough costestimation them (if possible) for installation.v.
 
Details of engineering survey to be conducted and probabletime and personnel required for carrying out the survey.vi.
 
Cost of the engineering survey.An index map to a scale of 1 cm= 2km, a schematic diagram and a layout plan to a scale of 1 cm = 250m should be included in the report.
Engineering Survey
The data required to be collected for the preparation of Project reportinitially and for the preparation of construction plans and detailed estimates later,comprises of the following.i)
 
Census population figures for the town for atleast five precedingdecades.ii)
 
Present rate of water supply and factors that will affect future and industrial demand.iii)
 
Details of existing water supply and sewerage, electric and telephonefacilities, the quality and quantity of existing water supply under average and adverse conditions and conditions of existing mains.iv)
 
Field survey and leveling work connected with source development,location for treatment plants, pumping stations and servicereservoirs, alignment of transmission main and preparation of detailed maps for the distribution system with contours.v)
 
Master plan for that area.Further data to be collected for each of the component are as detailed below.
a.
 
Surface sourcesi.
 
Sanitary survey for 10 km upstream and 2 kmdownstream of the proposed works to locate source of  pollution, cremation ground etc.,
ii.
 
Water sampling and quality analysis.
iii.
 
Minimum discharge in the river.

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