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Sound Isolation Measurement Applying ISO 140-4:2008

Sound Isolation Measurement Applying ISO 140-4:2008

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Published by Facundo Ramón
The objective of this paper is to measure sound isolation according to ISO 140-4:2008 between two classrooms of the Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero located in Caseros, Argentina.
The objective of this paper is to measure sound isolation according to ISO 140-4:2008 between two classrooms of the Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero located in Caseros, Argentina.

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Published by: Facundo Ramón on Jul 24, 2013
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1
UNTREF, Sound Engineering, Acoustic’s Instruments & Measurements July 2013, Argentina
 
SOUND ISOLATION MEASUREMENT APPLYING ISO 140-4:2008
RAMÓN FACUNDO
1
 
1
Univesidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero, Sound Engineering, Caseros, Argentina.
facundo.ramon@gmail.com 
1.
 
INTRODUCTION
Sound isolation is important for modern life style.Since people moved from rural areas to cities andstarted to live in residential buildings, their privacyand independence started to depend on soundisolation among other things. Silence is needed for agood quality of life, but the freedom of making noiseis too.The way of measuring isolation between twoneighboring spaces has been standardized in ISO140-4
1
. This norm sets a method for isolationmeasurement of airborne noise between twoseparated spaces.The objective of this paper is to measure soundisolation according to ISO 140-4:2008 between twoclassrooms of the
Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero
located in
Caseros, Argentina.
 
2.
 
ISO 140-4
This standard specifies a method to measure
in situ
the airborne sound isolation between two placesin diffuse field condition. It returns a value of isolation dependent of frequency.The method consists on generating a knownsound pressure level in one room (emitter) and tomeasure the transmitted energy in a contiguous room(receiver). Sound sources must be omnidirectionaland the noise generated should contain equal energyin all the audible octave bands. It must be at least 10dB over the background noise at the receiver point.The ISO 140-4 defines a list of parametersdescribed in the following sections.
2.1.
 
Average sound pressure level (
 L
)
This value is the logarithmic spatial average of sound pressure level in the room (see eq. 1).
!
=
10
 
!"#
!
!
10
!
!
/
!"
!
!
!
!
(1)Where
!
!
is the sound pressure level measured atone single point of the room. The level must bemeasured as L
eq
of minimum 6 second of integration.It is recommended to measure at least 5 points(n>5) separated by at least 0.7 m between them. It isalso recommended to locate the microphones farther than 0.5 m from any wall and 1 m of the soundsource. This is in order to measure a diffuse fieldcondition.The average level must be obtained in bothrooms, emitter and receiver. And it must be obtainedin third octave band.
2.2.
 
Difference of levels (
 D
)
It is the difference between spatial average levelmeasured in the emitter room and the one measuredin the receiver room.
!
=
!
!
!
!
(2)Where
!
!
is level in the emitter and
!
!
in thereceiver room.
2.3.
 
Standardized difference of levels (
 D
n
)
Because the receiver room can absorb some of thetransmitted energy, it was decided to standardize anabsorption area
 A
0
that will compensate the finalresult. Otherwise, all the loss of energy will beadjudicated to the isolation and values would begrater than they should be.
!
!
=
!
10
log
!
!
!
 
(
3
)
 Where
 A
is the absorption area of the receiver room calculated with Sabine’s equation (see eq. 4),and
 A
0
 
is the reference absorption area (see eq. 5).
 !
=
0
.
16
 
!
!
 
(
4
)
 
 !
!
=
0
.
32
 
!
 
(
5
)
 Where
is the volume of the receiver room incubic meters and
is its reverberation time obtainedapplying ISO 354
2
.
 
2
2.4.
 
Standardized difference of levels (
 D
nT 
)
It is basically equal to the previously describedstandardized value, but instead of compensate with anabsorption area it compensates with the reverberationtime. The reference reverberation time (
0
) is 0.5 s.
!
!
!
=
!
10
log
!
!
!
 
(
6
)
 
2.5.
 
Apparent reduction index (
 R’ 
)
Under the assumption of diffuse sound field in both rooms, this parameter can be calculated asfollows:
!
!
=
!
+
10
log
!
 !
 
(
7
)
 where
is the separator element’s surface in squaremeters and
 A
is the equivalent absorption area of thereceiver room calculated with equation (4).
3.
 
METHODOLOGY
Two contiguous classrooms were measured. Namely room 301 and 302 of 
Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero
(see fig. 1)
.
 
Figure 1: Classrooms scheme.
Two source position at the emitter room and threemicrophone positions at each room were measured(see fig. 1).First, all microphones pre-amplifiers werecalibrated with a 1 kHz tone at 94 dB SPL. Then background noise level was measured and recorded atevery microphone position of the receiver room.A dodecahedral sound source was used to excitethe emitter room; its level was set to overcome per 10dB the background noise level at the receiver  positions.The impulse response of the receiver room wasobtained using a balloon as an impulsive source.All data was digitally recorded as .wav files of 16 bit and 44 kHz and analyzed using Aurora acoustical parameters plug-in and Excel for the calculations.An
 L
value (see eq. 1) was obtained for each roomand at each third octave band. Then D iwas obtained(see eq. 2) also for each room and third octave band.After processing the impulse response andobtaining the reverberation time T20 of the receiver room the equivalent absorption area was calculatedusing equation 4. Then the parameter 
 D
n
 , D
nt 
 
and
R’ 
were calculated
 
using the definitions described above(equations 3, 6 and 7)
.
 
4.
 
RESULTS
Background noise level at the receiver room isshown in table 1.
Table 1: Background noise at receiver point.
31,7 Leq 1min dB(A)62,6 Leq 1min dB(Z)Dimensions of the room and the division wall areshown in tables 2 and 3.
Table 2: Dimension of the wall.
Height 2.6 mLength 8.0 mSurface 20.8 m
2
 
Table 3: Dimension of the receiver room.
Height 2.6 mLength 8.0 mWidth 4.3 mVolume 89.44 m
3
 Figure 2 shows reverberation time T20 of thereceiver room.From figure 3 to figure 6 the four parameters areshown, namely:
 D
,
 D
n
,
 D
nT 
and
 R’.
Finally, figure 7shows the four parameters in the same graphic tomake differences more visible.

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