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Cycle time calculation-unit_1_industrial_automation.pdf

Cycle time calculation-unit_1_industrial_automation.pdf

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Unit 1 Industrial Automation Assigned Core Text Reading for this Unit:
Groover, M. P. (2008),
 Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing
, 3
Chapter 1.
 1.1 Unit Introduction1.2 Unit Learning Objectives1.3 Production Systems1.4 Automation in Production Systems1.5 Manual Labour in Production Systems1.6 Automation Principles and Strategies1.7 Unit Review1.8 Self-Assessment1.9 Self-Assessment Answers
Section 1.1 Unit Introduction
 Automation technology such as robotics, machine tools, handling systems,controllers and computers are one of the most important industries in the worldand provide manufacturing industry with the means to improve quality, reduceerrors, increase productivity and reduce cycles times. Manufacturing has had along history, ranging from the initial creation of simple, hand-crafted items, to thedevelopment of large complex factories that include a host of factory-relatedproduction and fabrication techniques. The study of the systems of manufacturing and production has evolved into a complex field of research in itsown right. Manufacturing and production in the contemporary world faces thefollowing challenges:BULLETLISTGlobalisation—countries from all over the world are now major players in the fieldof manufacturing. Indeed, the manufacturing base has been seen to widen in thelast twenty years or so, with the emergence of major manufacturing centres inAsia (China, India, South Korea), and in Latin America (Mexico, Brazil, Peru)International outsourcing—traditional manufacturing once saw much productionwork done locally, or in one country; recently, however, there has been a movetowards sourcing parts and products from offshore manufacturersLocal outsourcing—a further outsourcing trend has seen manufacturing worktraditionally done inside the firm, being outsourced to local suppliers, withbenefits being derived from: use of specialist suppliers, thus reducing costs;lower labour costs in smaller companies; and overcoming in-house technologylimitations
Contract manufacturing—under contract to other companies, firms that specialisein specific manufacturing techniques produce whole products or parts, as per thespecifications given them by the contracting company. Contract manufacturersspecialise in efficient production techniques, and let the contracting firm focusupon other business elements such as design and marketingServices—there has been a move towards the service sector and away frommanufacturing, best seen in the decline of manufacturing-related jobs, and thegrowth in service-sector jobsQuality—there is a growing demand for perfect quality products every time, allthe time, from both corporate customers and end consumersEfficiency—manufacturing labour costs are not the same on a global basis; andso, to be competitive, companies in high-labour cost areas must find other ways,such as operational efficiency, typically using automation, to offset labour costsENDLISTEach of these challenges creates a complex environment for manufacturing. Thelatter challenges summarise the growing demand for automation by firms locatedin high cost economic areas such as north America and Western Europe.Automation provides a mechanism to increase quality and reduce costs of production. In this unit the concept of a production system is defined, withsections on the use of automation in production systems, and the deployment of manual labour. Sections are included that describe the key principles thatunderlie automation adoption, and the fundamental strategies used to implementautomation in a production system.
Section 1.2 Unit Learning Objectives
After completing this unit you will be able to:BULLET LISTRecognise the concept and elements of a production systemDescribe the key functions of manufacturing support systemsRecognise the three basic types of automationDefine computer-integrated manufacturingDescribe how manual labour is deployed in production systemsDetermine when to use automation in manufacturing systems
Outline key automation principles and strategiesENDLIST
Section 1.3 Production Systems
 A production system is a collection of people, equipment, and proceduresorganised to perform the manufacturing operations of an organisation. There aretwo levels within a production system:NUMLISTFacilities—the factory, the equipment in the factory, and the way the equipmentis organised around the shop floorManufacturing support systems—the set of procedures used to manageproduction and to solve technical and logistics problems met in manufacturingprocesses. These systems include product design, planning and control, logisticsand other business functions.ENDLIST
A production system consists of facilities and manufacturing support systems.
A manufacturing system is a logical grouping of equipment in the factory and theworkers who operate it. Examples include worker-machine systems, productionlines, and machine cells. A production system is a larger system that includes acollection of manufacturing systems and the support systems used to managethem. A manufacturing system is a subset of the production system.Portions of production systems tend to be automated and/or computerised, whileother parts may be operated by manual labour (see Figure 1.1). The overalloperation of the production system is controlled by people, including direct labourstaff for facility operation, and professional staff with responsibilities over themanufacturing support systems.

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