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Cycle time calculation-unit_2_manufacturing_operations.pdf

Cycle time calculation-unit_2_manufacturing_operations.pdf

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Unit 2 Manufacturing Operations Assigned Core Text Reading for this Unit:
Groover, M. P. (2008),
 Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing
, 3
Chapters 2 and 3.
 2.1 Unit Introduction2.2 Unit Learning Objectives2.3 Manufacturing Industries and Products2.4 Manufacturing Operations2.5 Production Facilities2.6 Product/Production Relationships2.7 Metrics of Production2.8 Manufacturing Costs2.9 Unit Review2.10 Self-Assessment Questions2.11 Self-Assessment Answers
Section 2.1 Unit Introduction
 Manufacturing changes the geometry, properties, and/or appearance of a givenstarting material to make parts or products, by applying transformationalprocedures, such as physical and chemical processes. Manufacturing can alsoinclude the joining together of multitudes of parts, in an assembly operation, tocreate an integrated product. To perform manufacturing we rely on the use of machinery, tools, power and manual labour; and, with the arrangement of thevarious work tasks to be completed into a sequence, we obtain an orderedmanufacturing operation. From an economic perspective, manufacturing may beseen as value-adding procedure, in that—following the application of manufacturing techniques—we transform the inputs to the process into higher-value outputs.
Manufacturing, and its associated techniques, has a long and interesting history,tied as it is, to the development of individual societies and human civilization ingeneral. Investigate various facets of the history of manufacturing athttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manufacturing 
 This unit surveys a number of aspects of manufacturing operations. Firstly, wediscuss manufacturing industries and products, and determine the types of manufacturing that can take place. Next, we take an in-depth look at particularmanufacturing operations, including processing, assembly, and other factory-related operations that can be performed on the product to be manufactured.
 Then we turn to production facilities, and the need for factories to organise theseefficiently; here we examine the differences between low, medium, and highproduction.Metrics used to measure the relationship between the product and the productionsystem are subsequently discussed, with explanations given of the variousmetrics used throughout manufacturing. We then turn to an examination of themathematical models of product performance that can be derived from known oridealised parameters in the production system. Metrics and mathematical modelsare important for identifying where automation can be applied.
Section 2.2 Unit Learning Objectives
After completing this unit you will be able to:BULLET LISTClassify the primary, secondary and tertiary manufacturing industriesRecognise production operations in process and discrete product industriesDefine the types of manufactured products that can be producedDefine the difference between processing operations and assembly operationsDetermine the ranges of production quantityDescribe product variety in terms of hard product variety, and soft product varietyDetermine metrics for a wide range of manufacturing and production processesENDLIST
Section 2.3 Manufacturing Industries and Products
  The type of manufacturing carried out by a company depends on the kinds oproducts it makes. Manufacturing industries consists of groups of firms that worktogether to produce and/or supply goods and/or services. Industries are usuallyclassed as either primary, secondary, or tertiary. Primary industries exploitnatural resources—examples include agriculture and mining; secondaryindustries tend to convert primary industry outputs into products—examplesinclude manufacturers and assemblers; and tertiary industries focus upon theservice sector—that is, they supply services usually based upon secondaryindustry products, or even other tertiary services themselves; examples includeinsurance, banking, education etc. See Figure 2.1.
Industries are usually classed as either primary, secondary, or tertiary. Primaryindustries exploit natural resources; secondary industries tend to convert primaryindustry outputs into products; and tertiary industries focus upon the servicesector.
In this unit we focus generally upon the secondary industry, which takes primaryindustry outputs and creates products by the application of various processessuch as machining and assembly. It is possible to distinguish between processindustries (that is, those who generally work with primary industry outputs, andconvert these raw materials into continuous products—examples include thepetro-chemical industry, beverage industry, food industry, and electric-generationindustry), and discrete product industries (that is, those who generally work bycreating and assembling low-level parts into integrated, high-level products—examples include the automotive industry, the computer industry, the applianceindustry, healthcare industry and the suppliers of component parts to theseindustries).Figure 2.1: Primary, secondary and tertiary industries for steel products
In the secondary industry, there are process industries and discrete productindustries. Discrete product industries work by creating and assembling low-levelparts into integrated, high-level products.

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