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Cycle time calculation-unit_11_inspection_technologies.pdf

Cycle time calculation-unit_11_inspection_technologies.pdf

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Published by: zainikamal1975 on Jul 25, 2013
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11. Inspection Technologies
11.1 Unit Introduction11.2 Unit Objectives11.3 Contact vs. Non-contact Inspection Techniques11.4 Conventional Measuring and Gauging Techniques11.5 Co-ordinate Measuring Machines11.6 Machine Vision11.7 Other Optical Inspection Techniques11.8 Non-contact Non-optical Inspection Technologies11.9 Unit Review11.10 Self Assessment11.11 Self Assessment Answers
11.1 Introduction
 Inspection is the means by which poor quality is detected and good quality isassured in products that are produced in a production process. Inspection isusually carried-out manually via the use of various technologies that examinespecific variables (quality characteristics of the product), or product attributes (toensure product conformance to previously-set standards). The major steps ininspection include:BULLETLISTPresentation of the item for inspectionExamination of the item for non-conformance on certain product attributesDecision-making, based on the results of the examination, whether the itempasses the quality standards required, and assigning the product to a qualitygradeAction, based upon the decision reached, such as accepting or rejecting the itemENDLIST
Inspection is the process of presenting, examining, deciding-upon, and acting-upon an item to ensure that poor quality is detected in product attributes, andgood quality is assured.
Various technologies support the inspection procedure, enabled by varioussensors, instruments, and gauges. Some inspection techniques use manually-operated devices such as micrometers, callipers, protractors, and go/no-gogauges; whilst other techniques are based upon modern technologies such as
co-ordinating measuring machines (CMM) and machine vision, which usecomputer-controlled systems that allow the inspection procedure to beautomated. This unit focuses on automated inspection techniques.Some general characteristics of measuring instruments, used in the inspectionprocedure, may be noted. These are outlined briefly in Table 11.1. Thesecharacteristics are used to determine the correct choice of inspection equipmentfor a particular inspection procedure. Table 11.1: Characteristics of measuring instruments
Characteristic Comments
Accuracy andPrecisionAccuracy is the degree to which the measured value agrees with thetrue value that has been pre-defined for the item. Precision is ameasure of repeatability in a measurement process, such that precisionreflects the consistency of the measurement results achieved.Resolution andSensitivity This aspect of a measuring instrument is its capacity to distinguish verysmall differences in the quantity of interest. The indication of thischaracteristic is the smallest variation of the quantity that can bedetected by the instrument.Speed of response Measures the time required for the measuring device to indicate thequantity measured. Ideally, the time lag should be zero, but this isobviously impossible.Wide operating range This is the capability of a measuring instrument to measure the physicalvariable throughout the entire span of practical interest to the user.High reliability A measure of the absence of frequent malfunctions and failures of themeasurement device.Cost The expense of purchasing and operating the measuring device, plusthe expense of training on the measuring device.
Characteristics of measuring instruments that are used to ensure correct deviceselection include parameters that assess:
accuracy and precision; resolution andsensitivity; speed of response; wide operating range; high reliability; and cost.
In this unit inspection technologies, particularly automated inspectiontechnologies, are investigated. We first look at contact versus non-contactinspection techniques, and provide examples of each. Conventional measuringand gauging techniques, which are typically manually-operated, are outlinedfollowed by a description of automated techniques for example the co-ordinatemeasuring machine. Machine vision methodologies are discussed. Finally, otheroptical inspection methods are outlined.
11.2 Learning Objectives
After completing this unit you will be able to:BULLET LIST
List the parameters of measuring instruments that are used to ensure correctdevice selectionExplain the different functions of measuring devices and gaugesDescribe the concept of co-ordinate metrology, and its associated equipmentList the components of a co-ordinate measuring machine (CMM)Define the concept of machine visionDescribe how image acquisition and digitization is performedOutline image processing and analysis techniquesSpecify common methods of interpretation in machine visionOutline other optical sensing techniques that can be used for inspectionSpecify other inspection techniques that are non-contact and non-opticalENDLIST
11.3 Contact vs. Non-contact Inspection Techniques
 There are two types of inspection techniques - contact and non-contact. SeeFigure 11.1.
 There are two types of inspection techniques: contact and non-contact.
Figure 11.1: Contact and non-contact inspection
11.3.1 Contact Inspection Techniques

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