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Cycle time calculation-unit_12_automated_manufacturing_systems.pdf

Cycle time calculation-unit_12_automated_manufacturing_systems.pdf

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12. Automated Manufacturing Systems
12.1 Unit Introduction12.2 Unit Objectives12.3 Components of a Manufacturing System12.4 Classification of Manufacturing Systems12.5 Overview of the Classification Scheme12.6 Single Station Manned Workstations12.7 Single Station Automated Cells12.8 Applications of Single Station Cells12.9 Analysis of Single Station Cells12.10 Unit Review12.11 Self Assessment12.12 Self Assessment Answers
12.1 Introduction
 Manufacturing systems consist of human workers, automation, and variousmaterial handling technologies, configured in ways that create specificmanufacturing system typologies. More specifically, a manufacturing system is acollection of integrated equipment and human resources, whose function is toperform one or more processing and/or assembly operations on a starting rawmaterial, part, or set of parts. Our focus in this unit is upon manufacturingsystems that are said to be automated, and so concentration will be put upon thetypes of integrated equipment that is used and arranged in a manufacturing cell.This can range from production machines and tools, material handling and workpositioning devices, to the use of various computer systems that facilitateautomation in the production environment.
KEYPOINT
 A manufacturing system is a collection of integrated equipment and humanresources, whose function is to perform one or more processing and/or assemblyoperations on a starting raw material, part, or set of parts.
END KEYPOINT
The manufacturing system is where value-added work is performed to partsand/or products, and this activity gives manufacturing a central place in theoverall scheme of the system of production, where it is supported by systems of manufacturing support, quality control, material handling, and automation control.Different types of manufacturing systems may be identified. These include:BULLETLISTSingle station cell—one worker tends one production machine that operates onsemi-automatic cycle
 
Machine cluster—one worker tends a group of semi-automated machinesManual assembly line—consists of a series of workstations at which assemblyoperations are performed to build gradually a product, such as an automobile Automated transfer line—production line consisting of a series of automatedworkstations that perform processing operations such as machining, with transfer of parts between workstation also being automated Automated assembly system—performs a sequence of automated or mechanized assembly operationsMachine cell—a series of manually-operated production machines andworkstations, often in a U-shaped configuration, which performs a sequence of operations on a family of parts or products that are similar but not identical; alsoknown as cellular manufacturing (See Figure 12.1).Flexible manufacturing system (FMS)—a highly automated machine cell thatproduces part or product families; often consists of workstations comprising CNCmachine toolsENDLISTFigure 12.1: Machine Cluster (Robotic Spot Welding Line)
KEYPOINT
Different types of manufacturing systems may be identified; these include: singlestation cells; machine clusters; manual assembly lines; automated transfer lines;automated assembly systems; machine cells (cellular manufacturing); andflexible manufacturing systems (FMS).
END KEYPOINT
 
 In this unit a general overview of these manufacturing types is offered bydescribing their common components and features, plus by supplying aclassification scheme. Single-station manufacturing cells, which are the mostcommon manufacturing system in industry, are described. This leads to ananalysis of single-station manned workstations and automated cells; as well as aconsideration of single-station cell applications, and an in-depth analysis of single-station systems.
12.2 Learning Objectives
 After completing this unit you should be able to:BULLET LISTDefine what is meant by a manufacturing systemSpecify the general material handling processes that may be distinguishedList the types of work transport to be encountered, and the equipment used tocarry it outExplain what computer functions are utilised in automated manufacturingDescribe why the number of workstations has an impact upon the type of manufacturing system implementedExplain why workstation layout is an important consideration in themanufacturing systemDefine what is meant by the manning level of a workstation, and list the levelsthemselves for single and multi-station systemsSpecify the importance of part or product variety for manufacturing systemsDescribe single- and multi-station systemsList the enablers for unattended cell operationCalculate the length of time that the automated cell can theoretically operateunattendedDetermine the number of workstations that are required in a systemDefine a machine cluster ENDLIST

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