THE CONSEQUENCES OFCOLONIALISM
ObjectivesIntroductionDefining ColonialismConsequences of Colonialism1.3.1 Nature and phases of the Colonial Empire1.3.2 Impact: The First Phase-Peasantry and its Impoverishment1.3.3 Impact: The Second
and its Effects1.3.4 Impact: The Third Phase-Imperialism and IndustrialisationLet Us Sum UpKey Wordssome usehi Books and ArticlesAnswers to Check Your Progress Exercises
To understand the challenges faced by India properly after Independence,it is necessary to study the consequences of colonial rule. Understandingthe multiple and contradictory nature of consequences is itself an engrossingexercise. But the making of modem India is still more fascinating. Afterreading this unit, you should be able to:understand how India came to become what it was at the time ofIndependence; andgrasp political, social and economic processes which took place in Indiaafter Independence.
The British built in India the largest colonial empire anywhere in the world.But it was a different kind of colony from most others. Many of the coloniesespecially in Latin America, with the exception of Dutch East Indies (nowcalled Indonesia), were built .with either slaves or indentured labour. Mostof the Indians that we find in Fiji (and many other places) today weretaken as indentured labour. The British built their colony in India withpeasants and freely recruited labour. There was alsoeo white "settlerpopulation" in India like for example in Kenya or Zimbabwe which tookcontrol of land and became the edifice of colonial domination. While thepeasant and the labour were coerced, the larger landowners and socialnotables were won over to the British side; sometimes after wars butnonetheless most of them eventually came over to the British side. Theyalso created new groups to cooperate with them by granting them Zamindariesor other land rights by displacing the old ones. India therefore was a colonybuilt on collaboration of "natives".The British ruled India by drawing a lion's share of surplus out of the Indan
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