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George Egely - Nano-Dust Cold Fusion - Qantitative Tests in Classical Mechanics, 15p

George Egely - Nano-Dust Cold Fusion - Qantitative Tests in Classical Mechanics, 15p

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Published by Egely György
George Egely - Nano-Dust Cold Fusion - Qantitative Tests in Classical Mechanics, 15p
George Egely - Nano-Dust Cold Fusion - Qantitative Tests in Classical Mechanics, 15p

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Published by: Egely György on Jul 25, 2013
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Quantitative Tests in Classical Mechanics
Classical mechanics is the cornerstone of physics, yet it is usually missing one crucial point:quantitative results. Though the conceptual models developed during introductory courses areobviously essential, it would be equally desirable to have quantitative checks of some simple(or more complicated) but fundamental dynamic phenomenon.Having quantitative test results of some selected one, two or three degrees of freedom-typemovement makes the process of the education more interesting.Students can compare theoretical (numerical) tests with actual test data, asses the effect of some usual idealization, like the neglect of friction or other non-linearity.It is no wonder why there is a scarcity of numerical tests of actual dynamic movement. It isquite cumbersome follow even the movement of a mass point, to say nothing of its velocity oracceleration.
There are methods today to follow the spatial and temporal dynamics of one or two mass points, but they are usually not enough: one might like higher derivates in order to check theconservation principles.
Eight years ago we set about to study the quantitative dynamics of systems with two degreesof freedom.It took about eight years and five generations of test devices and data acquisition systems tosolve this problem up to a degree of about 1% of accuracy, when the acceleration is not higherthen about 100-150 m/s
.The whole task of quantitative data acquisition even at these modest parameters is unsolvablewithout fast and specialized electronic data acquisition and processing.We had to learn some painful lessons during these years, and to make some compromiseswith costs. First of all one has to fight friction forces. Using tiny ball bearings could reducefriction substantially, but makes the shape of moving bodies more complicated, thus morecumbersome to calculate e.g. their moment of inertia.The size of test machines should not usually exceed about 20 cm. Above that size and at highaccelerations, potential stress energy could be accumulated in the moving active masses or inpassive ballast parts as elastic deformations. Monitoring these deformations continuously isnot impossible –but very expensive.An ordinary strain gauge will not do the job –their amplifiers are too slow for the job, andpiezoelectric ones are too expensive.The most crucial device used in all tests is an incremental transducer which has anoptoelectronics system inside, and converts the temporal dynamics of rotation into digitalsignals. The most convenient type for our tests had 2000 slits for a 360 degree rotation gauge,manufactured by HP with optical lithography. There are also linear incremental transducersbut they are less reliable and prone to mechanical damage and distortion during dynamicoperations. Though the application of rotational incremental transducers seems to be a severerestriction, in fact one is able to track linear movement with the help of fine flexible steelcables or ribbons.Special care was taken to use sturdy frames with minimal distortion, in order to reduce theeffect of external or internal vibrations and dynamic distortions.Five test devices are shown in the first photograph, which gives some impression about thepractical size of the test devices.Only one device will be detailed in this article, a heavy gyroscope, as this is the mostcomplicated and least understood device of classical mechanics.Students could penetrate to the depth of classical mechanics if they are able to understand thequalitative and quantitative behaviour of a heavy gyro.
2An additional advantage of this method is that one can trace the dissipation of energy due tofriction which is usually calculated by order of magnitude only.In general these devices, and the data aquisition hardware and the software is a useful tool tostudy a wide variety of movements but only within a rather narrow range of parameters.
The test device and test procedure
Fig.1The layout of the test device is shown in Fig. 2. The layout is the following: There is solidaluminum frame which is tied to the desk. It contains two horizontal coaxial axles, with anupper and lower ending.The flywheel is connected to a U-shaped arm, which rotates the lower half of the vertical axlevia a wire cable.
3Fig. 2The rotation angle around the vertical axes (
) and the
tilting angle around the horizontalaxis are measured by a two incremental angle transducers. The noiseless, correct transfer of the rotation angle is carried out by a thin metal cable wire, moving along two cable drams.(The possible errors due to this method are discussed during the description of the testprocess). The device contains a third electronic circuit, (not shown in Fig. 2) which measuresthe angular velocity of the flywheel, (24 signal/revolutions.)Due to design considerations, the 3
incremental transducer is able to rotate only 300°,otherwise its wires would be wound up during the rotations by the U-shaped holding arm.
 Data acquisition
: At the beginning of the test procedure, we start the test software, and at theend of the process it is switched off. In between, the software collects the signals from theincremental transducers.The vertical and horizontal angles (as a function of time) are determined by the polynomialregression method usually at one millisecond intervals and smoothed for both angles. It isimportant that we should have the interpolated angle as a function of time by one millisecond,and the smoothed original angular functions. They can be compared with each other and canbe compared with the original “raw” signals. This data is taken to an Excel software. Theangular velocities are calculated then the energies are calculated.During the course of the energy calculations, the total energy of the flywheel is separated intotwo parts: the internal one and the external one.The internal energy is E
 /2, where
is the inertia of the flywheel for the axis of rotation, and
is the angular velocity of the flywheel. At the usual parameters of the test, theamount of internal energy is about 1-5 times higher than the external energy, made of 
upper axis
cable drums
steel cable
horizontal axis
U shaped arm
lower axis

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