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Water scarcity and Water Quality Problem

Water scarcity and Water Quality Problem

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Published by: arzadd on May 19, 2009
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11/04/2012

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Background of water scarcity and water quality problem.
Water is important element in human life. Someone can not survive without water, so thatwater is the one that can support in our life. The water availability in this world is overflow, but just a little that can be used to drink. From the total amount of water in this world, only three percent that available to drink, and the other is salty water. Beside that, the problems aredecreasing of clean water supply. The increasing of population in this world, make the need of drinking water are going larger. So the availability of clean water is getting less than before.Today, the using of water in this world is rising two times but the availability isdecreasing. As a consequence, water scarcity will be happen in more than forty percent of theworld inhabitant. Water scarcity has negative effect in all of sector, belong to health. Without thehygienic drinking water, make 3800 children died everyday because of decease.Beside of increasing population, the environment damaging is one the cause of decreasing clean water source. Abration can contaminate water source in underground. Justthrowing away the garbage in the river, can make the water in the river are getting dirty andhealthy to use it. In Indonesia, almost sixty percent the rivers have been polluted any kind of waste. Fell down the trees in the forest can decrease the absorption of the land to the water andmake the decreasing of clean water supply.
Definition :
Water
is a common chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all knownforms of life.
Clean water
is water that can be used in our daily routines.
Drinking water
is water that has been preceded so can be drunk.
Surface water
is all water that found in the surface.
Ground water
is all water that found in the lower side of the ground (underground).
Water scarcity
is an imbalance of supply and demand under prevailing institutionalarrangements and/or prices.
Water quality
is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water inrelationship to a set of standards.
CAUSES OF WATER SCARCITYSome causes of water scarcity are natural, others are human agency :1.Growth of population
 
The world’s population is growing rapidly-In 2020, it is estimated to be 7,9 billion, 50 % larger than in 1990. That condition makes the water demand also increase. Moreover, growth of populationcauses bad sanitation problem which also influential to the water quality. For example, there are somehouses in Jakarta which the distance between well and septic tank is less than 10 meters. It may causethe water pollutant which can endanger the society.2.Damage in environtment-DeforestationDeforestation is the main cause of drought and water scarcity. The forest which be a catchmentarea has been damaged by human behaviour (wild cutting). The damage rating in all water source isfaster. That condition threats the function and potency of the water source area as the supplier of cleanwater.-Global WarmingGlobal warming has been influenced the increase of earth temperature, land where the water  places will volatile faster to defense hidrology circle. ---------------------3.Food ProductionThe growth in the demand for food is probably the single most important cause of pressure onwater resources: over the last generation, most of the increment in food supply has been obtained by aexpension in irrigated farming and the growing use of crops dependent on agronomic package basedon irrigation. Looking ahead 20-30 years, in many regions, most of the required increase in food production is expected to come from irrigated agriculture.4.Contamination of existing watePollution of normal water supplies effectively destroy part of the water resources, and force itsusers to turn elsewhere or reduce their consumption. This may happen to surface supplies or groundwater, and the pollution may be from industrial effluent, agrochemical run-off from fields, thecasual dispoasal of human excrete or the release of insufficiently treated sewage from municipalworks.5.Human behaviour Most of people are still consider that water is social thing. They don’t realize that water is----------------6.Modifications to landsapes and land useThe degradation and land use conversion of watersheds and catchments may reduce the amountof usable water available downstream, if there is greater run-off which can’t be captured. These same
 
 processes can reduce existing water storage capacity. Major land use changes may also inducemicroclimatic changes, leading to lower humadity.EFFECTS OF WATER SCARCITY1.DroughtsWater is the main element for live creature to being alive. If it occur droughts, humans, animals, plants will no alive. Research tell that humans will dead if they don’t drink along 3 days.2.FaminesWater is required in huge quantity for irrigation systems. If there is no water for irrigation, therewiil be no food production. The world will lack of food and famine will happen in all the regions.3.Economy problemThe government in United States has commanded investation in supplying water by privatecompanies (water privatation) for solving water scarcity. This solution is properly done in Indonesia because the water public company (PAM) doesn’t able to pay their debt. Hopefully, the society willthrifty and thankful because they have bought water expensively. Otherwise, water privatation makesthe access to water is limited and expensive because all the costs will be arranged by the privatecompanies. In that case, poor people are become harder to get clean water.
4.
Healthy problem
1) Locate and Eliminate Sources of Contamination
Finding the source of contamination is another approach to solving a water quality problem.While often difficult to locate or correct, some contamination problems can be corrected byeliminating the source. Lead contamination of water from corrosion of metal plumbing andsolder is one water quality problem that can be eliminated by replacing pipes, fittings, andfixtures that contain lead. Contamination from leaking fuel tanks, salt storage, or a failingsewage system may also be reduced or eliminated by locating and removing the source of contamination.
3) Treat the Water 
Water treatment to remove contaminants is a well-recognized approach to solving a water quality problem. Water treatment is most often used to disinfect water supplies to eliminate a bacteria problem and to correct nuisances, such as water that is hard or contains iron and/or hydrogen sulfide.

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