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Lift Force

Lift Force

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Published by ClassOf1.com
The lift force is produced by the relative motion between a solid object and a fluid. While the drag force acts in parallel to the direction of the fluid’s flow, the lift force acts in perpendicular to it.
The lift force is produced by the relative motion between a solid object and a fluid. While the drag force acts in parallel to the direction of the fluid’s flow, the lift force acts in perpendicular to it.

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Published by: ClassOf1.com on Jul 26, 2013
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09/06/2014

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Engineering
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Sub: Engineering Topic: Mechanical Engineering
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L
IFT
F
ORCE
 
The lift force is produced by the relative motion between a solid object and a fluid.
 While the drag force acts in parallel to the direction of the fluid’s flow, the lift force
acts in perpendicular to it. Lift force is important not only for aircraft wings andother flight control surfaces, but also for the design of propeller, compressor, andturbine blades; ship hydrofoils; and the body contours of commercial and racingautomobiles. The area of mechanical engineering that encompasses the interaction between structures and the air flowing around them is called
aerodynamics
. When engineers are performing aerodynamic analysis of drag and lift forces,invariably they make approximating assumptions with respect to geometry and the behavior of the fluid. For in
stance, neglecting a fluid’s viscosity or compressibility 
can simplify an engineering analysis problem enough for an engineer to develop apreliminary design or interpret the results of measurements. On the other hand,engineers are mindful of the fact that such assumptions, while meaningful in someapplications, could be inappropriate in others.Mechanical engineers often use
 wind tunnels
, to conduct experiments tounderstand and measure the forces generated when air flows around a solid object. Wind tunnels enable engineers to optimize the performance of aircraft, spacecraft,missiles, and rockets at different speeds and flight conditions. In such a test, a scalemodel of the object is built and attached to a special fixture for measuring the dragand lift forces developed by the airstream. Wind tunnels can also be used to
 
 
Sub: Engineering Topic: Mechanical Engineering
*
The Homework solutions from Classof1 are intended to help students understand the approach to solving the problem and not forsubmitting the same in lieu of their academic submissions for grades.
Mechanical Engineering Homework Help at Classof1.com
perform experiments related to high-altitude and supersonic flight.
Shock waves
 occur when the speed of air flowing around an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound,and they are responsible for the noise known as a sonic boom. Wind tunnels are also used to design automobile profiles and surfaces to reduce wind resistance and therefore increase fuel economy. Low-speed wind tunnels areeven applied in the realm of Olympic sports to help ski jumpers improve their form,and to help engineers design bicycles, cycling helmets, and sporting apparel havingimproved aerodynamic performance.
In addition to speed, the magnitude of the lift force generated by an aircraft’s wing
depends on its shape and tilt relative to the air stream. Lift is associated with the
pressure difference that exists between the airfoil’s upper and lower su
rfaces. Sincethe force exerted by a fluid on an object can be interpreted as the product of 
pressure and area, the lift force develops because the pressure on the wing’s lower
surface is greater than on the upper surface. In fact, airfoils are designed to takeadvantage of a trade-off between the pressure, velocity, and elevation of a flowingfluid, a result that is attributed to the eighteenth-century mathematician andphysicist Daniel Bernoulli.

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