as the key with which to interpret human life, nay, all things in general." Paulsen,Ethics (trans.), p. 48.: 2....... .T^R -WORLD-VIEW OF THE FOURTH GOSPELuniverse and his relation to it. 1 Sanctions administered by group-authority will to a certain extent retard this remolding of world-view.Especially is this true with regard to sanctions operating under the aegisof religion. Athens in the name of religion puts the cup of poison hem-lock to the lips of Socrates. The zealous churchmen of Italy make life aburden for Galileo. In the latter connection it is interesting to note thatcenturies before Galileo the same heliocentric view of the universe hadstirred up trouble for its protagonists. It had been put forward tenta-tively by Aristarchus of Samos, and Plutarch quotes Cleanthes theStoic to the effect that the Greeks should have put Aristarchus on trialfor his impiety as one who proposed to disturb " the hearth of the uni-verse." The trouble was not so much the matter of giving the sun acentral place in the universe, but rather of considering the earth assimply one of the attendant planets. This last notion was humiliatingindeed to the Stoic theologian, who felt that human beings inhabitingthe earth held first rank in creation and that the entire universe evi-denced but one purpose, namely, the ministration of welfare to gods andmen. To preserve the dignity of man, therefore, he must maintain atall hazards his geocentric theory. 3Apart from overt obstruction of the reshaping process by group-authority there is also the group thought-habit which is ever potent ineven the reflective and well-furnished intellect. The most finishedproduct in the way of a world- view cannot in the very nature of thingsbe other than a compromise between the heritage of the past and theachievements of the present. The mind of the Hellenist moved alongthought-pathways well marked out by earlier intellectual wyageurs.Intellectual orthodoxy played an important part in the evolution of Greek speculation. To think correctly made the measure of the man,for, according to the Socratic doctrine, right knowledge meant virtue.With the Jew the necessary lay in the realm of practice rather than inthe realm of the intellect. As far as philosophizing belonged to theHebrew mind the widest latitude obtained so long as the ritual require-ments of the Torah received due observance. For the Greek, orthodoxy1 "A man's religion, if it is genuine, contains the summed-up and concentratedmeaning of his life; and indeed it can have no value except as it does so. And it iseven more obvious that the theology of a philosopher is the ultimate outcome of hiswhole view of the universe and particularly of his conception of the nature of man.It is therefore impossible to show the real effect and purport of the former withoutexhibiting very carefully and fully its relations to the latter." Caird, Evolution of Theology in Greek Philosophy, Preface, p. viii.