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FISA Amendments

FISA Amendments

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01/08/2014

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CRS Report for Congress
Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress
Amendments to the Foreign IntelligenceSurveillance Act Set to Expire in 2009
Edward C. Liu
Legislative AttorneyMarch 16, 2009
Congressional Research Service
7-5700www.crs.govR40138
 
 Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Set to Expire in 2009Congressional Research Service
Summary
Several recent amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) will sunset onDecember 31, 2009. H.R. 1467, introduced in the 111
th
Congress, would extend these threeprovisions until December 31, 2019.Section 6001(a) of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Protection Act (IRTPA), also known asthe “lone wolf” provision, changed the rules regarding the types of individuals that could betargets of FISA-authorized searches. It permits surveillance of non-U.S. persons engaged ininternational terrorism, without requiring evidence linking those persons to an identifiable foreignpower or terrorist organization.Section 206 of the USA PATRIOT ACT amended FISA to permit multipoint, or “roving,”wiretaps by adding flexibility to the degree of specificity with which the location or facilitysubject to electronic surveillance under FISA must be identified.Section 215 of the USA PATRIOT ACT enlarged the scope of documents that could be soughtunder FISA, and lowered the standard required before issuance of a court order compelling theproduction of documents.While these provisions will cease to be prospectively effective on December 31, 2009, agrandfather clause permits them to remain effective with respect to investigations that began, orpotential offenses that took place, before the sunset date.
 
 Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Set to Expire in 2009Congressional Research Service
Contents
Overview....................................................................................................................................1
 
“Lone Wolf” Terrorists................................................................................................................2
 
Historical Context.................................................................................................................2
 
Legislative Responses...........................................................................................................3
 
Sunset...................................................................................................................................4
 
Roving Wiretaps.........................................................................................................................4
 
Background..........................................................................................................................4
 
Section 206 and “Other Persons”...........................................................................................5
 
Particularity Requirement of the Fourth Amendment.............................................................5
 
Sunset...................................................................................................................................6
 
Access to Business Records Under FISA.....................................................................................7
 
Background..........................................................................................................................7
 
Expansion of Scope of Documents Subject to FISA...............................................................8
 
Changes to the Standard of Review.......................................................................................8
 
Nondisclosure and Judicial Review.......................................................................................9
 
DOJ OIG Report.................................................................................................................10
 
Sunset.................................................................................................................................10
 
Proposed Legislation in the 111
th
Congress................................................................................11
 
Contacts
Author Contact Information......................................................................................................11
 

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