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Overview and revision
1.1 Overview
1.4 Congruences and modular arithmetic
1.5 The Chinese Remainder Theorem
Algebraic numbers
2.1 Algebraic numbers and algebraic integers
2.3 Appendix: Sums, products and quotients
Finite continued fractions
3.1 Introduction
3.2 The [ ] functions
3.3 The convergents of a ﬁnite continued fraction
3.4 A party trick
Inﬁnite continued fractions
4.1 An example
4.2 The deﬁnition
4.3. APPROXIMATION BY CONVERGENTS 35
4.3 Approximation by convergents
4.4. ORDER OF APPROXIMATION 37
4.4 Order of approximation
4.5 Proof of Lemma 4.6
Periodic continued fractions
5.3 The main theorem
Lagrange and Pell
6.1 Introduction
6.2 The continued fraction for √n
6.3 Sums of two squares
Euler’s totient function
7.1 Euler’s totient function
7.2 Evaluation of φ(n)
7.3 Orders of elements
7.4 Primitive roots
7.5 The M¨obius function
7.6 Appendix: An algebraic view
7.7. APPENDIX: CRYPTOGRAPHY 75
7.7 Appendix: Cryptography
8.1 Deﬁnition and basic properties
8.3 A Euclid-type theorem
8.4 Proofs of the ﬁrst two rules
8.5 Proofs of Rules 3 and 4
Sums of squares
9.1 Sums of two squares
9.2 Sums of four squares
9.3. TWO SQUARES REVISITED 93
9.3 Two squares revisited
9.4. SUMS OF THREE SQUARES 95
9.4 Sums of three squares
9.5 Where do these identities come from?
9.6 Pythagoras and Fermat
9.7 Open problems
9.8. APPENDIX: AN ALGEBRAIC PROOF 99
9.8 Appendix: an algebraic proof
10.1 Linear forms and degenerate quadratic forms
10.2. MATRIX, DISCRIMINANT, EQUIVALENCE 103
10.2 Matrix, discriminant, equivalence
10.3 Positive deﬁnite forms
Revision problems and solutions
11.1 Problems
11.2 Solutions
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A Course on Number Theory

# A Course on Number Theory

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Introduction on number theory
Introduction on number theory

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10/27/2013

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