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Adhyaasa-bhashyam

Adhyaasa-bhashyam

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Published by cumin
Adhyasa bhasyam commentary, 400 pages.
Adhyasa bhasyam commentary, 400 pages.

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Published by: cumin on Jul 27, 2013
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Adhyaasa Bhashyam
Fri 11/8/06 – Talk 1
Adhyaasa Bhashyam is an introductory commentary, it is not a complete text. A commentarydealing with adhyaasa is called Adhyaasa Bhashyam. This introductory commentary is anintroduction to Brahma Sutra.
What is Brahma sutra ?
In Sanskrit it is Brahma Sutram or Brahma Sutrani. It is one of the three basic texts of Vedanticteaching. Technically the 3 basic texts are called
 Prasthanatrayam
– trayam means three andprasthana means Basic.
 Prasthiyathe asmin ithi prasthanam-
that upon which something is basedis called Prasthanam. Even a pillar is called Prasthanam. Anything which forms the basis forsomething is called Prasthanam.Three texts are forming the basis for the teaching of Vedanta-1)
 
Upanishad 2) Bhagavad Gita 3) Brahma SutraThe first – the Upanishad is called
Shrauta Prasthanam
- basic text in the form of sruti.The second - the Bhagvad Gita is called
Smriti prasthanam
- basic text in the form of smriti andthe third - Brahma Sutra is called
Nyaya prasthanam
basic text dealing with Nyaya or logicalaspect of Vedantic teaching. This text is in the form of sutras.
What is a sutra ?
A sutra is a brief statement in which so many ideas are packed. In english it is called Aphorism.These sutras are cryptic statements on Vedantic idea. A Collection of aphorisms dealing withBrahman are the Brahma sutras.Brahma Sutra is written by Veda Vyasa who is also known asBadarayana. That is why it is called Badarayana sutrani or Sariraka Sutrani.Brahma Sutra consists of 555 sutras in 4 chapters.
 What is the purpose of Brahma Sutras? What does Veda Vyasa want to achieve through theBrahma Sutras?
There are three purposes ;1) Analysing important statements of Upanishad and bringing out the essential Vedantic teaching.The tatparyam of all the Upanishads is brought out.2) To answer the charges raised by other systems of philosophy or darshanams. Darshanam isderived from drsh dhathu-vision or view.3) The third one we will do later.First we will see what are Darshanas ?
The set of views or vision of a renowned thinker is called Darshanam.
 
2
Generally any Darshana deals with six topics :a) Jiva svarupam-who am I ?b) Jagat svarupam- What is this world ?c) Isvara svarupam- Who is Isvara ?d) Ko nama Bandhanam ? What is the nature of bondage?e) Moksha svarupa kim ? What is the nature of freedom.f) Moksha Upaya.These are the imp issues discussed in every darshana. Philosophers are called Darshanikah.Philosophy is called
Darshanas.
In our tradition there are 12 Darshanas.They are divided into two groups- Aasthika and Nasthika darshana.Asthika means one who accepts the authenticity of the Vedas.
Vedah pramanam asti iti brute.
One who says Vedas are the authentic means of knowledge.Whether he accepts Isvara or not is not imp. There are some asthikas who do not accept Isvara.But they are still called asthikah. Their philosophy is called Astika Darshanani.Nasthika means those who do not accept Vedas . For us accepting the Vedas is more important.Their philosophy is called Nasthika Darshanani
The Nasthika Darshanas
are
:1) Charvaka Darshanam :
The philosophy of materialism. Acc to them the body is atma andmokshah is enjoying. Vedas is just a projection of some rishis. Moksha is to eat, sleep and enjoynow. That is the only sadhana . It sounds good and is very pleasing to hear.. They have charuvak.Charu vakah means pleasing speech. This enjoy -philosophy is called Charvaka.This philosophy is surprisingly attributed to Lord Brhaspati, the guru of the devathas. In Puranathe explanation given for this –Brhspati was to mislead the asuras who were getting powerfuldoing rituals. It was a strategy of the devas to get the asuras away from performing rituals andgetting powerful. To spread mis-information so that the asuras will not gain power and can beeasily defeated. One version it is said that Brhspati took the form of Sukracharya and told theasuras this philosophy . It appealed to the asuras and they adopted it.
2) Jain Darshanam :
That which has come from Jin. Jinah means one who has conquered. Theybelieve there are 24 Thirthankaras . Last in line was Vardhama Mahaveera who was called Jin.And the philosophy is named after him. They do not believe in Vedas and they worshipMahaveera and other Tirthankaras.
3)
The third is a set of four darshanas given by Budha. Buddha means the enlightened one - onewho has understood. They are called
Baudha Darshanani.
Buddha himself did not write anybook. His teachings are in the form of statements heard by disciples. Afterwards when some Kingsaccepted Baudha dharma, they called seminars and asked scholars to bring out his teachings.
 
3
Three books were written called Pitkas (box)-Sutra pitkam, Abhidharma pitkam and Vinayapitkam. All written in common Pali language.Sutra pitkam contains the statements of Buddha in sutra form. Abhidharma is philosophicaltreatise and Vinaya is the code of conduct. These three are the basic texts of Buddhism.But later there was a split as to what Buddha tried to communicate. So out of this singlephilosophy – 4 groups were formed. Each one has got slightly different ideas from the others.1)
 
Sautrantikas. Based on the sutras or statements of Buddha2)
 
Vaibhashika. This is basedon the abhidharma pitika3)
 
Yogachara. They believe in momentary conciousness.4)
 
Madhyamikaha . They believe in sunya vada.So these are the 4 branches of Buddhism.The six
Asthika darshanas
are-1)
Sankhya darshanam
presented by Kapila muni2)
 
Yoga darshanam
presented by Sage Patanjali3)
 
Nyaya
presented by Gautama muni4)
 
Vaisheshika darshanam
by Kanad rishi. He use to eat what ever was left after harvesting.Hence the name.5)
Purva mimamsa
which is mainly analyzing the first part of Vedas and done by Jaimini Rishiand the important text is called Purva mimamsa.6)Last is
Uttar mimamsa
done by Veda Vyasa.The text is Brahma sutra.Among the asthika darshanas the last two emphasise the Vedas as primary pramana. They arecalled Veda Pradhanani and the others emphasise Tarka or logic. In the Uttar Mimamsa, BrahmaSutra is important.In the Brahma sutra the first 4 sutras are very important. They are called
Chatus Sutra.
Many students study these four sutras. Among the four the first one is important.The first sutra is “
atha tho brahma jignasa.” 
 
“ Thereafter therefore desire for knowing Brahman.” 
Just reading the translation does not give youanything. Since the sutras are so cryptic we need to have commentaries. By gods grace there arefortunately many. The main one in our tradition is the Sankaracharya Bhashyam. Unlike someother commentaries where there is some doubt of authorship, but regarding Brahma Sutra there isno doubt at all that Sankaracharya wrote it. It is a great work and indicates his PrasannaGambhiryam -cheerful profoundity. Without Sankaracharya we would not be able to figure it out.Sankara’s bhasyam is so profound that it itself needed commentaries. Therefore we have got somany commentaries on the commentaries. We have Ratna Prabha on Sankara Bhashyam and onthat we have Purna Nandi. On that commentary as students we write so many notes when theteacher explains. So there is so much depth. The depth of sastra you will understand whilestudying Brahma Sutra.So on Brahma sutra there is bhashyam and on that there is Tika and on Tika there are Tippany.There is also another genealogy . There is Bhamati on Sankara bhashyam and on that there is

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