It is hard to imagine what the modern world would look like without the constant exchange of a huge quantity of information. It is currently disseminated by various means such as newspapers, telephone and the Internet.However the fastest way, and sometimes the only way, is by radio. This is where the transfer is byelectromagnetic waves, traveling at the speed of light. In radio communication, a radio transmitter comprisesone side of the link and a radio receiver on the other. No conductor of any kind is needed between them, andthat's how the expression
came into being.In the early days of radio engineering the terms
were alsoused, but were quickly replaced with
, or just
.Radio communication is created by means of electromagnetic waves, of which the existence and features weretheoretically described and predicted by James Maxwell, in 1864.First experimental proof of this theory was given by Heinrich Hertz in 1888, ten years after Maxwell's death.It was already known at that time that electric current exists in oscillatory circuits made of a capacitor of capacity
and coil of inductance
. It was Thomson, back in 1853 that determined the frequency of thisarrangement to be:Hertz used an oscillatory circuit with a capacitor made of two bowls, K1 and K2 (Pic. 1.1), and the "coil" wasmade of two straight conductors. The bowls could be moved along the conductors. In this way the capacitanceof the circuit could be altered, and also its resonance frequency. With every interruption from the battery, a highvoltage was produced at the output of the inductor, creating a spark between the narrow placed ballsk1 andk2. According to Maxwell's theory, as long as there wasa spark, i.e. alternating current in the circuitry, therewas an electromagnetic field surrounding the conductors, spreading itself through the surrounding space.A fewmetres away from this device Hertz placed a bent conductor with metal balls k3, k4 placed on the ends,positioned very close to each other.This also was an oscillatory circuit, called the resonator.