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Understanding Electronics Components

Understanding Electronics Components

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Published by: namemamun on May 20, 2009
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Understanding Electronics Components
author: Filipovic D. Miomir 
This book is meant for those people who want to create electronic devices with their own hands.All components are illustrated and the circuit-symbol is explained in detail. Both simple andcomplex examples are provided for the beginners. These include resistors, capacitors,transformers, transistors, integrated circuits, etc and each has its own symbol to represent it inan electrical or electronic diagram -called a circuit diagram. In order to understand how a certaindevice functions, it is necessary toknow each symbol and the characteristics of the component.These are the things we will be covering in this book.
Contents:
1. RESISTORS
1.1. Marking the resistors
 
1.2. Resistor power
 
1.3. Nonlinear resistors1.4. Practical examples1.5. Potentiometers1.6. Practical examples
2. CAPACITORS
2.1. Block-capacitors
 
2.1.1. Marking the clock-capacitors
 
2.2. Electrolytic capacitors
 
2.3. Variable capacitors2.4. Practical examples
3. COILS AND TRANSFORMERS
3.1. Coils3.2. Transformers3.2.1. Working principles and characteristics of 
 
transformers3.3. Practical examples
4. TRANSISTORS
4.1. Working principles of transistors4.2. Basic characteristics of transistors4.3. The safest way to test transistors4.4. TUN and TUP4.5. Practical examples
 
5. DIODES
5.1. Marking the diodes5.2. Characteristics of diodes5.3. Practical examples
6. THYRISTORS, TRIAC, DIAC
6.1. Practical examples
 
7. INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
7.1. Analog integrated circuits7.2. Digital integrated circuits7.3. Practical examples
8. MICROPHONES, SPEAKERS,HEADPHONES
8.1. Microphones
 
8.2. Speakers
 
8.3. Headphones8.4. Practical examples
9. OPTO-ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS
9.1. Practical examples
10. OTHER COMPONENTS
10.1. Relays
 
10.2. Practical examples
11. COMPONENTS CHECK
11.1. Diodes and transistors11.2. Transformers and coils11.3. Capacitors11.4. Potentiometers11.5. Speakers, headphones, microphones
 
12. CONDUCTIVITYPROBE
12.1. Semiconductors check12.2. Other components check
1. Resistors
Resistors are the most commonly used component in electronics and their purpose is to create specified values ofcurrent and voltage in a circuit. A number 
 
of different resistors are shown in the photos. (The resistors are on millimeter paper, with 1cm spacing togive some idea of the dimensions).Photo 1.1ashows some low-power resistors, while photo1.1b shows some higher-power resistors. Resistors with power dissipation below 5 watt (most commonly usedtypes) are cylindrical in shape, with a wire protruding from each end for connecting to a circuit (photo 1.1-a). Resistors with power dissipation above 5 wattare shown below (photo 1.1-b).
Fig. 1.1a: Some low-power resistorsFig. 1.1b: High-power resistors and rheostats
The symbol for a resistor is shown in the following diagram (upper: American symbol, lower: European symbol.)
Fig. 1.2a: Resistor symbols
The unit for measuring resistance is the
OHM
. (the
Greek letter Ω
-called Omega). Higher resistance values are represented by "k" (kilo-ohms) and M (meg
ohms). For example, 120 000 Ω is represented as 120k, while 1 200 000 Ω is represented as 1M2. The dot is generally omitted a
s it can easily be lost in the printing process.In some circuit diagrams, a value such as 8 or 120 represents a resistance in ohms. Another common practice is to use the letter E for 
resistance in ohms. The letter R can also be used. For example, 120E (120R) stands for 120 Ω, 1E2 s
tands for 1R2 etc.
1.1 Resistor Markings
Resistance value is marked on the resistor body. Most resistors have 4 bands. The first two bands provide the numbers for theresistance and the third band provides the number of zeros. The fourth band indicates the tolerance. Tolerance values of 5%, 2%, and 1% are most commonly available.The following table shows the colors used to identify resistor values:
COLORDIGITMULTIPLIERTOLERANCETCSilver
x 0.01
±10%
Gold
x 0.1
±5%
Black 
0x 1
Brown
1x 10
±1%±100*10
-6
/K 
 
Red
2x 100
±2%±50*10
-6
/K 
Orange
3x 1 k 
±15*10
-6
/K 
Yellow
4x 10 k 
±25*10
-6
/K 
Green
5x 100 k 
±0.5%
Blue
6x 1 M
±0.25%±10*10
-6
/K 
 
Violet
7x 10 M
±0.1%±5*10
-6
/K 
 
Grey
8x 100 M
White
9x 1 G
±1*10
-6
/K 
 
** TC-Temp. Coefficient, only for SMD devices
Fig. 1.2: b. Four-band resistor, c. Five-band resistor, d. Cylindrical SMD resistor, e. Flat SMD resistorThe following shows all resistors from 0R1 (one tenth of an ohm) to 22M:

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