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Physio Multiple Choice Body Fluids and Renal and Resp

Physio Multiple Choice Body Fluids and Renal and Resp

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Published by: sac50900 on May 20, 2009
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03/09/2013

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1.Because ICF volume can only change if and when ECF osmolarity changes(because all substances enter and leave the body through the ECF compartment)an addition 10L of isotonic NaCl will cause what change in ICF volume?a.5L increase b.No changec.5L decreased.10L increasee.2.5L increase2.An addition of 10L of isotonic D5W will cause what change in ICF volume?a.Increase b.No changec.Decreased.Cannot answer with information given3.Why would a 2L infusion of isotonic NaCl to the ECF not affect ICF volume andosmolarity but a 2L infusion of isotonic D5W would affect both ICF volume andosmolarity if they are both isotonic?a.NaCl is much more permeable to cell membranes than Glucose b.Isotonic D5W is hypertonic to plasmac.
 
Glucose is quickly taken up and metabolized by cells, essentially makingisotonic D5W a hypotonic solutiond.NaCl has higher permeability to cell membranes than Glucosee.Isotonic D5W has a higher affinity than isotonic NaCl4.What hormone responds to changes in, and thus is largely responsible for controlling plasma osmolarity?a.Aldosterone b.Cortisolc.11-DOCd.ADHe.Mineralocorticoids5.If both plasma osmolarity increase and there is body volume depletion of 10-15%,ADH will choose to increase body volume no matter the affect of diluting the plasma/decreasing the osmolarity. In which of the following diseases can yourefine your diagnosis to include Late-Stage versus Early-stage based on the severehyponatremia caused by ADH’s preference in maintaining body volume over  plasma osmolarity after a 10-15% body volume loss?a.Diabetes Insipidus Nephrogenic b.Conn’s (primary hyperaldosteronism)c.Cushing’s Diseased.SIADHe.Addison’s Disease
 
6.The concentration of impermeable particles (whether to cell membrane or capillary endothelium) determines the effective osmolarity of a particular compartment. Interstitial Fluid and Plasma are separated from each other viacapillary endothelium, to which ALL natural substances dissolved in plasma – except proteins – are permeable. What determines the effective osmolarity between Interstitium and Plasma within the ECF?a.[Na+] plasma b.[Glucose] plasmac.[Ca++] plasmad.[proteins] plasmae.[K+] plasma7.What substance represents most of the nonpermeant (osmolarity-causing) particles in the ECF?a.NaCl b.MgCl2c.CaCl2d.NaHCO3e.H+8.Because NaCl exists in the body in its ionized form, Na+ and Cl- and it isresponsible for most of the ECF’s osmolarity because its ions are the most highlyconcentrated of the ECF particles, how can you use a [Na+] in the ECF of 143mOsm (mM) to find the osmolarity of the ECF?a.Add [Na+] in the Intracellular Compartment to 143 b.Multiply 143 by 2, since if Na+ = 143 in ECF, there must be an equivalent
 
osmolarity produced by Cl- in the ECFc.Subtract the [Cl-] in the ECF from the [Na+] in the ECFd.Add the [K+] in the ECF to the [Na+] in the ECFe.Find Na+ in mEq/L in the ECF and add it to the NaCl in mEq/L in theECF9.Many diagnoses in renal physiology can only be determined or differentiated fromother similar diagnoses by comparing serum osmolarity versus urine osmolarity.Match the appropriate diagnosis to its corresponding “states” of osmolarity.a.Equal directional change in [Na+] serum as [Na+] in urine b.[Na+] serum of 156 mEq/L and [Na+] urine of 50 mEq/Lc.[Na+] serum of 120 mEq/L and [Na+] urine of 900 mEq/Ld.[NaCl] serum of 150 mM and Dilute Urinee.[NaCl] serum of 300 mOsm/L and Concentrated UrineSIADH (C), DI (B), Primary Polydipsia (A), Cholera (chronic diarrhea) (C or E),Conn’s Syndrome (A)**Normal serum osmolarity is around 280-320 and normal urine osmolarity is500-800 mOsm/L but range can be less than 50 – 1200 mOsm/L
 
10.Intravenous infusion of 1 liter of 3% saline would cause which of the followingchanges after osmotic equilibrium? D11. A patient is brought to your office and after lab testing, you are given the followingresults:Plasma osmolarity: 270 mosm/LUrine osmolarity: 1200 mosm/LBlood pressure: 100/56 mmHgBased on the fact that urine osmolarity is directly related to urine flow rate (thus dilutingor concentrating the osmotic particles in urine) and your knowledge of how body volumeaffects blood pressure, which diagnosis would you choose?a.SIADH b.Primary Hyperaldosteronismc.Diabetes Insipidusd.Severe Diarrheae.Diuretic Abuse (surreptitious use)12. If a person has a kidney transport maximum for glucose of 350 mg/min, a glomerular filtration rate of 110 ml/min, a plasma glucose of 375 mg/dl, and a urine flow rate of 3.0ml/min, what would be the approximate rate of glucose excretion, assuming normalkidneys?a. glucose excretion cannot be estimated from this data b. 0 mg/minc. 25 mg/mind. 60 mg/mine. 180 mg/min13. You wish to evaluate kidney function in a 65 year old male and ask him to collect hisurine over a 24 hours period. He returns to you 4320 ml of urine, collected over the preceding 24 hours. The clinical lab returns the following results from analysis of hisurine and plasma samples:Plasma creatinine: 3.0 mg/dlUrine creatinine: 30 mg/dl

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