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Published by anushreesanikop
Book for 1sem BSc IT
Book for 1sem BSc IT

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Published by: anushreesanikop on May 20, 2009
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11/06/2012

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Chap-1 The Concept Of Communication
Communication
is the process to impart information from a sender to a receiver with theuse of a medium. Communication requires that all parties have an area of communicativecommonality. There are auditory means, such as speaking, singing and sometimes tone of voice, and nonverbal, physical means, such as body language, sign language,paralanguage, touch, eye contact, or the use of writing. Communication is defined as aprocess by which we assign and convey meaning in an attempt to create sharedunderstanding. This process requires a vast repertoire of skills in intrapersonal andinterpersonal processing, listening, observing, speaking, questioning, analyzing, andevaluating. Use of these processes is developmental and transfers to all areas of life:home, school, community, work, and beyond. It is through communication thatcollaboration and cooperation occur.
Communication
is simply a method of sending a message from one person or group of persons to another. It is of vital importance to a business because it involves all thepersons and organizations connected with the business - employees, customers,shareholders, suppliers, creditors, debtors - and a whole range of people outside - journalists, television reporters, tax authorities, local government and nationalgovernment officials, the European Union and, indeed, any person or organizationthroughout the world with which the business has any contact.Good communication will ensure that all these persons and organizations understand themessage sent. They will also be more likely to respond favourably to the message if itappears to be reasonable and fair to both the receiver and the business.Bad communication will have exactly the opposite effect. People will be confused by themessage and less likely to do what the business wants.That is why good communication is so essential. It is not only
what 
you say (or write),but
how
you say it that is important. Your message should be easy to understand and takeaccount of the receivers' own attitudes and feelings.Communication is the articulation of sending a message through different media,
 
whetherit is verbal or nonverbal, so long as a being transmits a thought provoking idea, gesture,action, etc. Communication is a learned skill. Most people are born with the physicalability to talk, but we must learn to speak well and communicate effectively. Speaking,listening, and our ability to understand verbal and nonverbal meanings are skills wedevelop in various ways. We learn basic communication skills by observing other peopleand modeling our behaviors based on what we see. We also are taught somecommunication skills directly through education, and by practicing those skills andhaving them evaluated.Communication as an academic discipline relates to all the ways we communicate, so itembraces a large body of study and knowledge. The communication discipline includes
 
both verbal and nonverbal messages. A body of scholarship all about communication ispresented and explained in textbooks, electronic publications, and academic journals. Inthe journals, researchers report the results of studies that are the basis for an ever-expanding understanding of how we all communicate. Communication happens at manylevels (even for one single action), in many different ways, and for most beings, as wellas certain machines. Several, if not all, fields of study dedicate a portion of attention tocommunication, so when speaking about communication it is very important to be sureabout what aspects of communication one is speaking about. Definitions of communication range widely, some recognizing that animals can communicate with eachother as well as human beings, and some are more narrow, only including human beingswithin the parameters of human symbolic interaction.Nonetheless, communication is usually described along a few major dimensions: Content(what type of things are communicated), source, emisor, sender or encoder (by whom),form (in which form), channel (through which medium), destination, receiver, target ordecoder (to whom), and the purpose or pragmatic aspect. Between parties,communication includes acts that confer knowledge and experiences, give advice andcommands, and ask questions. These acts may take many forms, in one of the variousmanners of communication. The form depends on the abilities of the groupcommunicating. Together, communication content and form make messages that are senttowards a destination. The target can be oneself, another person or being, another entity(such as a corporation or group of beings).Communication can be seen as processes of information transmission governed by threelevels of semiotic rules:1.
 
Syntactic (formal properties of signs and symbols),2.
 
pragmatic (concerned with the relations between signs/expressions and theirusers) and3.
 
semantic (study of relationships between signs and symbols and what theyrepresent).Therefore, communication is social interaction where at least two interacting agents sharea common set of signs and a common set of semiotic rules. This commonly held rule insome sense ignores autocommunication, including intrapersonal communication viadiaries or self-talk.
 
 In a simple model, information or content (e.g. a message in natural language) is sent insome form (as spoken language) from an emisor/ sender/ encoder to a destination/ receiver/ decoder. In a slightly more complex form a sender and a receiver are linkedreciprocally. A particular instance of communication is called a speech act. In thepresence of "communication noise" on the transmission channel (air, in this case),reception and decoding of content may be faulty, and thus the speech act may not achievethe desired effect. One problem with this encode-transmit-receive-decode model is thatthe processes of encoding and decoding imply that the sender and receiver each possesssomething that functions as a code book, and that these two code books are, at the veryleast, similar if not identical. Although something like code books is implied by themodel, they are nowhere represented in the model, which creates many conceptualdifficulties.Theories of co regulation describe communication as a creative and dynamic continuousprocess, rather than a discrete exchange of information. Canadian media scholar HaroldInnis had the theory that people use different types of media to communicate and whichone they choose to use will offer different possibilities for the shape and durability of society (Wark, McKenzie 1997). His famous example of this is using ancient Egypt andlooking at the ways they built themselves out of media with very different propertiesstone and papyrus. Papyrus is what he called '
Space Binding'
. it made possible the

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