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Edemic Disease

Edemic Disease

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Introduction
An infection is said to be endemic (from Greek en- in or within + demos people) in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs. An endemic disease is a disease that is always present in a certain population or region. Endemic diseases are often confused with epidemics. However, an epidemic refers to an outbreak of a disease that is spreading through one or more populations, while an endemic disease is one that is constantly present in a group or geographic area. Pandemics are worldwide epidemics. Under certain circumstances, an epidemic can lead to a disease becoming endemic. Endemic diseases are not always present at high levels. They can be relatively rare, but the defining feature of a regional endemic disease is that it can always be found in the population that lives there.
Examples: in Nepal
Degnala disease in buffaloes

Introduction
An infection is said to be endemic (from Greek en- in or within + demos people) in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs. An endemic disease is a disease that is always present in a certain population or region. Endemic diseases are often confused with epidemics. However, an epidemic refers to an outbreak of a disease that is spreading through one or more populations, while an endemic disease is one that is constantly present in a group or geographic area. Pandemics are worldwide epidemics. Under certain circumstances, an epidemic can lead to a disease becoming endemic. Endemic diseases are not always present at high levels. They can be relatively rare, but the defining feature of a regional endemic disease is that it can always be found in the population that lives there.
Examples: in Nepal
Degnala disease in buffaloes

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07/19/2014

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What is an Endemic Disease?
Dr. Kedar KarkiSenior Veterinary OfficerVeterinary public health Office.Tripureshwor
Introduction
An
is said to be endemic (from
 
en-
in or within +
demos
people) ina
w
hen that infection is maintained in the population without the needfor external inputs.
 
An endemic disease is a disease that is always present in acertain population or region. Endemic diseases are often confused withepidemics. However, an epidemic refers to an outbreak of a disease that isspreading through one or more populations, while an endemic disease is onethat is constantly present in a group or geographic area.
Pandemics
areworldwide epidemics. Under certain circumstances, an epidemic can lead to adisease becoming endemic. Endemic diseases are not always present at highlevels. They can be relatively rare, but the defining feature of a regionalendemic disease is that it can always be found in the population that livesthere.
Examples: in Nepal
Degnala disease in buffaloes
Introduction
Paddy harvesting, threshing and its storage are major agricultural activities insouth Asia during the November. Such rice straw is the major fodder for
and buffaloes during winter lean period. It´s a fact that rice production needssource of water supply for irrigation as water is indispensable throughoutproduction period. The rice straw should be properly dried before feedingotherwise the undried straw might desiccate and such straw feeding wouldcause adverse effect in health of cattle and buffaloes.The harvesting of paddy was adversely affected in Nepal and other south Asiancountries Due to long rain during the month of November and December. Therice plants were submerged in the paddy field and the rice straw gotdesiccated. Due to rain threat the farmers were compelled to store the ricestraw without thorough drying.
 
As a consequence symptoms like drying and necrosis of tail and ear tip,swelling of legs and then drying, necrosis and gangrenous lesion on foot,reduction in
production by 70-80% were observed in buffaloes fed to suchstraw. In Nepal such conditions were reported from districts like Jhapa,saptari, siraha, Rautahat, Chitwan, nawalparasi, Kathmandu, Nuwakot,Bankeand Lamjung. The vet doctors and technicians working in such areas weretreating such condition diagnosing as FMD, Black Quarter etc but withoutsuccess.
What´s in other south Asian countries?
There is interesting fact about above mentioned symptoms, geographicallocation and livestock production system. During 1930s in Punjab Province of Pakistan, the health of buffaloes fed with rice straw from vicinity of Deg Riverdeteriorated with symptoms similar to aforementioned. The British animalhealth technician J.E.Sirllow working there during that time named thedisease with all above symptoms as DEGNALA. But he was unable to pin pointthe exact cause of that disease.There is evidence that during 1960-70s the veterinarians in Punjab area of Pakistan and India again discussed about this disease. In 1973 the rice strawfrom disease area of Punjab Ludhiana of India was found to be infected withfungus Fusarium SPP tested in kyu surrey laboratory of UK. The investigatorshave claimed that due to feeding to fungus infected feed and straw, the toxinproduced during metabolism is the cause of disease and symptoms in buffaloes.In present context above mentioned disease is not only prevalent in vicinity of Deg River but also prevalent in all those areas where buffaloes are kept fedwith rice straw. In India this disease is seen annually in Panjab, Hariyana, UttarPradesh, Uttaranchal, Bihar, Bengal, Jharkhand, chhatisgard states.In Nepal
was first reported in 1988 in Banke district butepidemic outbreak was in 2000 AD in Jhapa, Morang, Sunsari, Siraha, Saptari,Banke, and Bardia districts. Again this time after 12 yrs this disease isreappeared in above mentioned districts of Nepal situation is not different inother countries in this region and winter rain is responsible for it.
Pathogenesis Factor 
The cause of symptoms in this disease has been thoroughly studied by thiscolumnist during his Master degree in veterinary medicine. The
produced by the metabolism of Fusariam fungus dissolves the collagen and
 
elastin into collagenase and elastinase respectively. As a result in thedependent parts of ear, tail, foot blood supply is obstructed and ultimatelytissue die of anoxia. In addition to this toxin severely affects liver, lungs,heart, and kidney.
 

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