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SQL Plsql Material

SQL Plsql Material

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Published by Rukmini Vegesna
sql material
sql material

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Published by: Rukmini Vegesna on Jul 28, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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SQL is divided into the following
Data Definition Language (DDL)
Data Manipulation Language (DML)
Data Retrieval Language (DRL)
Transaction Control Language (TCL)
Data Control Language (DCL)DDL Data Definition Language (DDL) statements are used to define the database structure or schema. Some examples:
CREATE - to create objects in the database
ALTER - alters the structure of the database
DROP - delete objects from the database
TRUNCATE - remove all records from a table, including all spaces allocated for therecords are removed
COMMENT - add comments to the data dictionary
RENAME - rename an objectDRL Data Retrieval Language:
SELECT - retrieve data from the a database
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DML Data Manipulation Language (DML) statements are used for managing data withinschema objects. Some examples:
INSERT - insert data into a table
UPDATE - updates existing data within a table
DELETE - deletes all records from a table, the space for the records remain
MERGE - UPSERT operation (insert or update)DCL Data Control Language (DCL) statements. Some examples:
GRANT - gives user's access privileges to database
REVOKE - withdraw access privileges given with the GRANT commandTCL Transaction Control (TCL) statements are used to manage the changes made by DMLstatements. It allows statements to be grouped together into logical transactions.
COMMIT - save work done
SAVEPOINT - identify a point in a transaction to which you can later roll back 
ROLLBACK - restore database to original since the last COMMITDRL: To Retreive the data from Databse Tables or views..
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SELECT:SELECT *FROM emp;SELECT emno,ename,sal,deptnoFROM emp;SELECT *FROM empWHERE deptno = 10;SELECT empno,ename,sal,deptnoFROM empWHERE deptno = 10;SELECT *FROM empWHERE job = ‘manager’;SELECT *FROM empWHERE job = ‘MANAGER’;
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