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Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment

Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment

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Published by Dan Wolf
Automotive companies perform crash simulations including airbags and dummies to predict the forces that would be exerted on the passenger. For people of average size the airbag can be simulated using a uniform gas bag method where a pre-determined pressure profile is applied inside the airbag surface. In some crash scenarios, such as OOP (Out-of-Position), the passenger is already leaning forward at the time of airbag deployment, in which case the flow is not uniform and the pressure method is not accurate. Instead, Full Gas Dynamic approach (CFD method) is used to accurately simulate the gas jet and its pressure distribution inside the bag. This crash example is based on the full gas dynamic approach where an occupant dummy impacts the airbag.
Automotive companies perform crash simulations including airbags and dummies to predict the forces that would be exerted on the passenger. For people of average size the airbag can be simulated using a uniform gas bag method where a pre-determined pressure profile is applied inside the airbag surface. In some crash scenarios, such as OOP (Out-of-Position), the passenger is already leaning forward at the time of airbag deployment, in which case the flow is not uniform and the pressure method is not accurate. Instead, Full Gas Dynamic approach (CFD method) is used to accurately simulate the gas jet and its pressure distribution inside the bag. This crash example is based on the full gas dynamic approach where an occupant dummy impacts the airbag.

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Published by: Dan Wolf on May 21, 2009
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02/02/2013

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Chapter 21: Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment
21
Occupant Safety andAirbagDeployment
 
375
CHAPTER 21
Occupant Safety and AirbagDeployment
Summary
TitleChapter 21: Occupant Safety and Airbag DeploymentFeaturesAirbag Deployment with OccupantGeometryUnit dimensions: mm, kg, ms, KN,GPa, K, JMaterial propertiesCar frame:RigidAirbag:Fabric
(MATD034
)Density = 8.76E-07Ea = 0.3; Eb = 0.2nab= 0.2; Gab = 0.04CSE = 1; EL = 0.06; PRL = 0.35LRATIO = 0.1; DAMP = 0.4Initial airbag gas:Density = 1.2E-9; Pressure = 0.000101; Temperature=294.34Gamma gas constant = 1.4; R gas = 286.98; CP gas=1004Inflator:RigidR gas inflator = 353.78; CP gas inflator = 1191The Inflator Mass Flow Rate and the Temperature of the gas as afunction of time are defined by tables.Dummy:Hybrid 3 - 50 (LSTC.H3.022908_Beta_Rigid.50thSeatbelt:fabric (
MATD034
) and seatbelt material (
MATDB01
)Analysis typeTransient explicit dynamic analysis (SOL 700)Boundary conditionsFixed except an airbag and a dummyApplied loadsInitial velocity 15 mm/ms to a dummy.Prescribed Mass Flow Rate and Temperature of Inflator GasElement type1-D beam element, 2-D shell element, 3-D solid elementFE resultsPlots of deformed shapes at varioussteps.
 
MD Demonstration ProblemsCHAPTER 21
376
Introduction
Automotive companies perform crash simulations including airbags and dummies to predict the forces that would beexerted on the passenger. For people of average size, the airbag can be simulated using a uniform gas bag methodwhere a pre-determined pressure profile is applied inside the airbag surface. In some crash scenarios, such as Out-of-Position (OOP), the passenger is already leaning forward at the time of airbag deployment, in which case the flow isnot uniform and the pressure method is not accurate. Instead, Full Gas Dynamic approach (CFD method) is used toaccurately simulate the gas jet, and its pressure distribution inside the bag. This crash example is based on the full gasdynamic approach where an occupant dummy impacts the airbag.
Requested Solutions
A numerical analysis will be performed to predict the behavior of an airbag and an occupant dummy during crashsimulation.
FEM Solution
The units of this model are mm, kg, msec, KN, GPa, K, and J.
TSTEPNL
describes the number of time steps (20) andtime increment (2 msec) of the simulation. End time is the product of the two entries. Notice here that the timeincrement is only for the first step, and in this analysis, it is overruled by the addition of an initial time step parameter:
PARAM, DYINISTEP, 1.E-7.
The actual number of time increments and the exact value of the time steps are determined by SOL 700 during theanalysis. The time step is a function of the smallest element dimension during the simulation.
TSTEPNL 1 20 2.
AIRBAG
instructs SOL 700 to create an airbag using either the full gas dynamic (CFD) method or using a uniform gasbag method. Here, the CFD method will be used. Inflow of gas into the airbag is defined by the entries following the
INFLATOR
key word.
AIRBAG 3 7 ON+ CFD 1 1.2E-9 20. 20. 20.+ NONE+ INITIAL0.000101 294.34 286.98 1004.+ INFLATOR 9 1 2 1.+ 353.78 1191.+ GAS 2+ 0.0 0.02897CONSTANT 1004.+ GAS 4+ 0.0 0.0235CONSTANT 1191.
MATD034
represents SOL 700 Material #34. It is used to model fabric material.

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