MD Demonstration ProblemsCHAPTER 21
Automotive companies perform crash simulations including airbags and dummies to predict the forces that would beexerted on the passenger. For people of average size, the airbag can be simulated using a uniform gas bag methodwhere a pre-determined pressure profile is applied inside the airbag surface. In some crash scenarios, such as Out-of-Position (OOP), the passenger is already leaning forward at the time of airbag deployment, in which case the flow isnot uniform and the pressure method is not accurate. Instead, Full Gas Dynamic approach (CFD method) is used toaccurately simulate the gas jet, and its pressure distribution inside the bag. This crash example is based on the full gasdynamic approach where an occupant dummy impacts the airbag.
A numerical analysis will be performed to predict the behavior of an airbag and an occupant dummy during crashsimulation.
The units of this model are mm, kg, msec, KN, GPa, K, and J.
describes the number of time steps (20) andtime increment (2 msec) of the simulation. End time is the product of the two entries. Notice here that the timeincrement is only for the first step, and in this analysis, it is overruled by the addition of an initial time step parameter:
PARAM, DYINISTEP, 1.E-7.
The actual number of time increments and the exact value of the time steps are determined by SOL 700 during theanalysis. The time step is a function of the smallest element dimension during the simulation.
TSTEPNL 1 20 2.
instructs SOL 700 to create an airbag using either the full gas dynamic (CFD) method or using a uniform gasbag method. Here, the CFD method will be used. Inflow of gas into the airbag is defined by the entries following the
AIRBAG 3 7 ON+ CFD 1 1.2E-9 20. 20. 20.+ NONE+ INITIAL0.000101 294.34 286.98 1004.+ INFLATOR 9 1 2 1.+ 353.78 1191.+ GAS 2+ 0.0 0.02897CONSTANT 1004.+ GAS 4+ 0.0 0.0235CONSTANT 1191.
represents SOL 700 Material #34. It is used to model fabric material.