: Development of Novel Non-contact Electrodes
GSM networkPhysicianGSMmodemBackend Healthcare server Wireless ECGacquisition moduleMobile systemplatformNon-contactelectrodesGSM networkPhysicianPhysicianGSMmodemBackend Healthcare server Wireless ECGacquisition moduleMobile systemplatformNon-contactelectrodesWireless ECGacquisition moduleMobile systemplatformNon-contactelectrodes
Basic scheme of proposed mobile ECG monitoring system.
the equivalent capacitance
of the skin-electrode interface,it inevitably decreases, causing larger input-referred noise,when the distance between the skin and the conducting plateincreases. Therefore, in order to reduce the input-referrednoise, the adjustment of the parasitic capacitance
may be relatively practicable. In this study, theguarding technique is used to improve the inﬂuence of theparasitic capacitance
. Moreover, the parallel connectionof two reverse diodes, which are connected with two seriesresistances, is used to replace the impedance
to providehighimpedance.Here,thediodeswithlowleakagecurrentareselected, and the series resistances can decrease the forwardbias of the diodes effectively.
III. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN
Fig. 2 illustrates the system architecture of the proposedmobile electrocardiogram monitoring system. The systemhardware consists of non-contact electrodes, a wireless ECGacquisition module, and a mobile system platform. Here,the proposed non-contact electrode was designed to measureECG without contacting the user’s skin directly. Therefore,the user can wear the non-contact electrode to monitor real-time ECG across thin clothes. The proposed wireless ECGacquisition module was designed to acquire ECG from thenon-contact electrodes, and transmit it to the mobile systemplatform wirelessly via Bluetooth. Then, an ECG monitoringprogram built into the mobile system platform will continu-ously monitor the user’s heart rate. When the abnormal heartrate is detected, the ECG monitoring program can send anSMS message with raw ECG data to the backend healthcareserver to request emergency treatment. Based on the SMSmechanism, the cardiac state of the patient can be monitoredanywhereintheglobeiftheyareunderthecoverageofaGSMcellular network.
A. IMPLEMENTATION OF NON-CONTACT ELECTRODE
The implementation of the proposed non-contact electrode isshowninFig.3(a).Here,aprintedcircuitboard(PCB)copperplatewithanareaof2
isusedastheconductingplate.The circuit of non-contact electrode is placed in the oppositeside of the conducting plate. And the gap between the PCBandtheshieldinglayerisﬁlledwithhotmeltadhesive(HMA)to hold the conducting plate. Here, the shielding layer is
(a) Implementation illustration and (b) photograph of proposed noncontact electrode circuit.
formed by covering with aluminum foil, and plastic tapeis also used to cover the non-contact electrode to form theisolation layer. Finally, the electrode is topped with Velcro soitcanbeattachedtoclothingeasilyandconveniently.Fig.3(b)shows a photograph of the proposed non-contact electrodecircuit.
B. WIRELESS ECG ACQUISITION MODULE
Fig. 4(a) shows the block diagram of the proposed wirelessECG acquisition module. Here, the front-end ampliﬁer cir-cuit, which contains a pre-ampliﬁer and a band-pass ﬁlter,was designed to amplify and ﬁlter ECG signals obtainedfrom the non-contact electrodes. The gain of the front-endampliﬁer circuit is set to 500 over the frequency band of 0.01–120 Hz. Then, the ampliﬁed ECG signal is digitizedby a 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC), built intothe microprocessor, with a sampling rate of 512 Hz. Themicroprocessor (TI MSP430) was used to control the ADCand peripheral circuits, and send ECG data to Bluetoothmodule. The size of the wireless ECG acquisition mod-ule is about 7
. It operates at 25 mA with a
Pre-amplifier Band-passfilter Front-end amplifier unit Analog-to-digitalconverter SignalprocessingMicroprocessor unitWireless transmission unitWireless ECG acquisition moduleNon-contactelectrode