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Ecg Mobile Monitor

Ecg Mobile Monitor

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Published by Sreedev Sureshbabu
this system automatically records the ecg or electro cardio gram
this system automatically records the ecg or electro cardio gram

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Published by: Sreedev Sureshbabu on Jul 29, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/21/2014

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WEARABLE SENSORS AND HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEMS
Received 31 October 2012, revised 16 January 2013, accepted 15 March 2013. Date of current version 4 June 2013.
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/JTEHM.2013.2253598
Development of Novel Non-contact Electrodes forMobile ElectrocardiogramMonitoring System
BOR-SHYH LIN (Member, IEEE)
1,2
 , WILLY CHOU
2
 , HSING-YU WANG
1
 , YAN-JUN HUANG
1
 ,AND JENG-SHYANG PAN (Senior Member, IEEE)
3
1
Institute of Imaging and Biomedical Photonics, and Biomedical Electronics Translational Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Tainan 711, Taiwan
2
Department of Medical Research, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan 710, Taiwan
3
Department of Electronic Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 10488, Taiwan andInnovative Information Industry Research Center (IIIRC), Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518000, China
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: B-S. LIN (borshyhlin@mail.nctu.edu.tw)
ABSTRACT
Real-timemonitoringofcardiachealthishelpfulforpatientswithcardiovasculardisease.Manytelemedicine systems based on ubiquitous computing and communication techniques have been proposed formonitoring the user’s electrocardiogram (ECG) anywhere and anytime. Usually, wet electrodes are used inthese telemedicine systems. However, wet electrodes require conduction gels and skin preparation that canbe inconvenient and uncomfortable for users. In order to overcome this issue, a new non-contact electrodecircuitwasproposedandappliedindevelopingamobileelectrocardiogrammonitoringsystem.Theproposednon-contact electrode can measure bio-potentials across thin clothing, allowing it to be embedded in a user’snormal clothing to monitor ECG in daily life. We attempted to simplify the design of these non-contactelectrodes to reduce power consumption while continuing to provide good signal quality. The electricalspecifications and the performance of monitoring arrhythmia in clinical settings were also validated toinvestigate the reliability of the proposed design. Experimental results show that the proposed non-contactelectrode provides good signal quality for measuring ECG across thin clothes.
INDEX TERMS
Arrhythmia, electrocardiogram (ECG), mobile electrocardiogram monitoring system, non-contact electrode, telemedicine.
I. INTRODUCTION
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the main causes of death across most countries. Providing prompt emergencycare within the ‘‘golden hour’’ (one hour of onset of cardiacsymptoms) can greatly reduce mortality. Therefore, real-timemonitoring of cardiac health in daily life is useful for patientswith cardiovascular disease.Currently, outpatient service is still the major healthcareapproach for the common cardiovascular diseases. However,recently telemedicine systems that integrate with wirelesscommunication techniques, such as wireless local area net-work (WLAN), global system by using mobile communi-cations (GSM) network, and general packet radio service(GPRS) mobile network, have been introduced that allowmobile patients to receive healthcare anywhere and any-time, within limitations [1]–[5]. However, conventional wetelectrodes, which require conduction gels and even skinpreparationtoreducetheskin–electrodeinterfaceimpedance,are most frequently used for the above telemedicine sys-tems. And these procedures tend to be uncomfortable andinconvenient for users. The development of wearable sensingdevices would allow telemedicine systems to monitor real-time physiological signals comfortably.Various kinds of dry electrodes, such as metal electrodesandtextileelectrodes,whichcanmeasurebio-potentialswith-out conductive gels, have been proposed for developingwearable sensing devices in several previous studies [6]–[9].Anliker et al. proposed gold electrodes to design an AMONsystem for monitoring ECG, blood pressure, and SpO2 [6].Catrysse et al. proposed textile sensors to develop a wireless
VOLUME 1, 2013 2168-2372/$31.00
2013 IEEE
2700108
 
Lin
et al.
: Development of Novel Non-contact Electrodes
monitoring suit [7]. In 2010, Beckmann et al. investigatedthe characteristics of textile electrodes for measuring ECG,andmadeaspecificationcomparisonbetweendifferenttextileelectrodes [8]. Lin et al. developed dry foam electrodes tomonitor long-term EEG [9]. Although these novel dry elec-trodes can measure bio-potentials without conductive gels,contact with the user’s skin, and thus risk of irritation, is stillnecessary.Different from the conventional wet electrodes and noveldry electrodes, which tend to minimize the skin–electrodeinterface impedance, non-contact electrodes, developed bythe concept of coupling capacitance, were also proposedfor wearable sensing devices recently [10]–[14]. In 2008,Oehler et al. developed capacitive electrodes on a multi-channel portable ECG system [10]. Matsuda et al. pro-posed a capacitively coupled electrode for ECG monitor-ing in car driving [11]. In 2012, Baek et al. also usedactive electrodes to develop a health monitoring chairfor long-term ECG monitoring [12]. In 2010, Eilebrechtet al. designed a 3
×
3 electrode matrix for monitor-ing ECG [13]. In 2012, Chi et al. combined the inputcapacitance cancellation circuit and the bootstrap circuitwith the active electrode to develop non-contact electrodesfor ECG and EEG monitoring [14], [15]. Due to theadvantages of measuring bio-potentials across clothing, itmay be practicable to embed non-contact electrodes in auser’s normal clothing to monitor the user’s ECG in dailylife.In this study, a novel non-contact electrode was also pro-posed and applied in developing a mobile electrocardiogrammonitoring system. Based on the common concept of non-contact electrode, we attempt to propose a new non-contactelectrode circuit. Under the condition of providing good sig-nal quality, the design of the proposed non-contact electrodewas simplified to reduce power consumption effectively.Here, a wireless ECG acquisition module and an Androidmobile system platform were also designed to monitor real-time ECG wirelessly. Finally the electrical specifications of the proposed non-contact electrode were validated in thisstudy. And the motion artifact issue and the performance of monitoring arrhythmia in clinical settings were also tested toinvestigate the reliability of the proposed design. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section II and Section IIIintroduce the design concept of the novel non-contact elec-trode, and the architecture of the mobile electrocardiogrammonitoringsystemrespectively.Theperformanceanddiscus-sions of the novel non-contact electrode are investigated inSection IV and Section V. In Section VI, the conclusion isdrawn.
II. DESIGN OF NON-CONTACT ELECTRODES
The basic concept of the proposed novel non-contact elec-trode is to construct a conducting plate covered by aninsulating layer to form a parallel plate capacitor with theskin. Therefore, the non-contact electrode can couple bio-potential signals capacitively to a bio-amplifier. However,the impedance of skin-electrode interface is very high dueto the small capacitance between the skin and the conduct-ing plate, and it will cause the non-contact electrode tobecome very sensitive to interferences. In order to reduce theinfluence of the varying and high impedance of the skin-electrodeinterface,animpedanceconverterisusedtoconnectto the conducting plate. The basic scheme of the proposednon-contact electrode is shown in Fig. 1(a). Here,
denotesthe capacitor resulting from the skin-electrode interface. Animpedance
is connected with a reference voltage
ref 
toprovide a bias voltage to ensure the input bio-potentials are inthe action region of the impedance converter.
-
+
out 
2
 Rn
i
in
2
 Nn
i
2
 Pn
i
2
n
e
body
 R
b
Bio-potential 
-+V
ref 
V
out
conductingplateinsulatinglayer SkinVccD
1
D
2
R
1
R
2
Z
-
+
out 
2
 Rn
i
in
2
 Nn
i
2
 Pn
i
2
n
e
body
 R
b
Bio-potential 
-
+
out 
2
 Rn
i
in
2
 Nn
i
2
 Pn
i
2
n
e
body
 R
b
Bio-potential 
(b)(a)
-+V
ref 
V
out
conductingplateinsulatinglayer SkinVcc
 
D
1
D
2
R
1
R
2
Z-+V
ref 
V
out
conductingplateinsulatinglayer SkinVcc
 
D
1
D
2
R
1
R
2
Z
FIGURE 1.
(a) Basic scheme of the proposed noncontact electrode and(b) its equal model for noise analysis.
The equivalent model of the proposed non-contact elec-trode for noise analysis is then shown in Fig. 1(b). Here,
in
meansthetotalparasiticcapacitanceoftheoperationalampli-fier, which is used as the impedance converter. The capaci-tance effect
b
results from the potential difference betweenthe positive terminal and negative terminal on the operationalamplifier. The major noise sources include the input voltagenoise
e
2
n
, the positive input current noise
i
2
Pn
, the negativeinput current noise
i
2
 Nn
of the operational amplifier, and thecurrent noise
i
2
 Rn
of the impedance
. Obviously, the input-referred noise is mainly affected by the parameters of 
,
b
,
in
and
. However, the value
b
is the electrical characteris-tic of the operational amplifier, and is difficult to adjust. For
2700108
VOLUME 1, 2013
 
Lin
et al.
: Development of Novel Non-contact Electrodes
GSM networkPhysicianGSMmodemBackend Healthcare server Wireless ECGacquisition moduleMobile systemplatformNon-contactelectrodesGSM networkPhysicianPhysicianGSMmodemBackend Healthcare server Wireless ECGacquisition moduleMobile systemplatformNon-contactelectrodesWireless ECGacquisition moduleMobile systemplatformNon-contactelectrodes
FIGURE 2.
Basic scheme of proposed mobile ECG monitoring system.
the equivalent capacitance
of the skin-electrode interface,it inevitably decreases, causing larger input-referred noise,when the distance between the skin and the conducting plateincreases. Therefore, in order to reduce the input-referrednoise, the adjustment of the parasitic capacitance
in
and theimpedance
may be relatively practicable. In this study, theguarding technique is used to improve the influence of theparasitic capacitance
in
. Moreover, the parallel connectionof two reverse diodes, which are connected with two seriesresistances, is used to replace the impedance
to providehighimpedance.Here,thediodeswithlowleakagecurrentareselected, and the series resistances can decrease the forwardbias of the diodes effectively.
III. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN
Fig. 2 illustrates the system architecture of the proposedmobile electrocardiogram monitoring system. The systemhardware consists of non-contact electrodes, a wireless ECGacquisition module, and a mobile system platform. Here,the proposed non-contact electrode was designed to measureECG without contacting the user’s skin directly. Therefore,the user can wear the non-contact electrode to monitor real-time ECG across thin clothes. The proposed wireless ECGacquisition module was designed to acquire ECG from thenon-contact electrodes, and transmit it to the mobile systemplatform wirelessly via Bluetooth. Then, an ECG monitoringprogram built into the mobile system platform will continu-ously monitor the user’s heart rate. When the abnormal heartrate is detected, the ECG monitoring program can send anSMS message with raw ECG data to the backend healthcareserver to request emergency treatment. Based on the SMSmechanism, the cardiac state of the patient can be monitoredanywhereintheglobeiftheyareunderthecoverageofaGSMcellular network.
 A. IMPLEMENTATION OF NON-CONTACT ELECTRODE 
The implementation of the proposed non-contact electrode isshowninFig.3(a).Here,aprintedcircuitboard(PCB)copperplatewithanareaof2
×
2cm
2
isusedastheconductingplate.The circuit of non-contact electrode is placed in the oppositeside of the conducting plate. And the gap between the PCBandtheshieldinglayerisfilledwithhotmeltadhesive(HMA)to hold the conducting plate. Here, the shielding layer is
FIGURE 3.
(a) Implementation illustration and (b) photograph of proposed noncontact electrode circuit.
formed by covering with aluminum foil, and plastic tapeis also used to cover the non-contact electrode to form theisolation layer. Finally, the electrode is topped with Velcro soitcanbeattachedtoclothingeasilyandconveniently.Fig.3(b)shows a photograph of the proposed non-contact electrodecircuit.
B. WIRELESS ECG ACQUISITION MODULE 
Fig. 4(a) shows the block diagram of the proposed wirelessECG acquisition module. Here, the front-end amplifier cir-cuit, which contains a pre-amplifier and a band-pass filter,was designed to amplify and filter ECG signals obtainedfrom the non-contact electrodes. The gain of the front-endamplifier circuit is set to 500 over the frequency band of 0.01–120 Hz. Then, the amplified ECG signal is digitizedby a 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC), built intothe microprocessor, with a sampling rate of 512 Hz. Themicroprocessor (TI MSP430) was used to control the ADCand peripheral circuits, and send ECG data to Bluetoothmodule. The size of the wireless ECG acquisition mod-ule is about 7
.
5
×
3
.
5 cm
2
. It operates at 25 mA with a
Pre-amplifier Band-passfilter Front-end amplifier unit Analog-to-digitalconverter SignalprocessingMicroprocessor unitWireless transmission unitWireless ECG acquisition moduleNon-contactelectrode
 
Pre-amplifier Band-passfilter Front-end amplifier unit Analog-to-digitalconverter SignalprocessingMicroprocessor unitWireless transmission unitWireless ECG acquisition moduleNon-contactelectrode
(a)(b)
FIGURE 4.
(a) Block diagram and (b) photograph of proposed wirelessECG acquisition module.
VOLUME 1, 2013
2700108

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