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Beam Column Base Plate Design

Beam Column Base Plate Design

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Beam-Column Base Plate Design—LRFD Method
ENGINEERING JOURNAL / FIRST QUARTER / 1999
Richard M. Drake is Principal Structural Engineer, FluorDaniel, Irvine, CA.Sharon J. Elkin is Structural Engineer, Fluor Daniel, Irvine,CA.29
12344
INTRODUCTION
RICHARD M. DRAKE and SHARON J. ELKIN
I
 B N b f m N . mn M P  B . bn x x
Fig. 1. Base Plate Design Variables
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where:t is c mm n design practice t design a building r struc-base plate width perpendicular t m ment direc-ture beam-c lumn with a m ment-resisting r fixed base.ti n, in.Theref re the base plate and anch r r ds must be capablebaseplatelengthparallelt m mentdirecti n,in.f transferring shear l ads, axial l ads, and bending m -c lumn flange width, in.ments t the supp rting f undati n.verall c lumn depth, in.Typically, these beam-c lumn base plates have beenanch r r d distance fr m c lumn and base platedesigned and/ r analyzed by using service l ads r bycenterline parallel t m ment directi n, in.appr ximating the stress relati nship assuming the c m-base plate bearing interface cantilever directi npressi n bearing l cati n. The auth rs present an therparallel t m ment directi n, in.appr ach,usingfact redl adsdirectlyinameth dc nsis-tentwiththeequati ns fstaticequilibriumandtheLRFD0 95(1)Specificati n.2The m ment-resisting base plate must have designbaseplatebearinginterfacecantileverperpendic-strengthsinexcess ftherequiredstrengths,flexural( ),ular t m ment directi n, in.axial ( ), and shear ( ) f r all l ad c mbinati ns.A typical beam-c lumn base plate ge metry is sh wn0 80in Figure 1, which is c nsistent with that sh wn n page(2)211-61 f the LRFD Manual.base plate tensi n interface cantilever parallel tm ment directi n, in.(3)2 2c lumn flange thickness, in.The pr gressi n f beam-c lumn l adings, in rder f in-creasing m ments, is presented in f ur l ad cases.Case A is a l ad case with axial c mpressi n and shear,with ut bending m ment. This case results in a full lengthunif rm pressure distributi n between the base plate andthe supp rting c ncrete. This case is summarized in theLRFD Manual beginning n page 11-54 and is summa-rized herein f r c mpleteness.Case B ev lves fr m Case A by the additi n f a smallbending m ment. The m ment changes the full lengthunif rm pressure distributi n t a partial length unif rmpressuredistributi n,butisn tlargeen ught causesepa-rati n between the base plate and the supp rting c ncrete.Case C ev lves fr m Case B by the additi n f a spe-cific bending m ment such that the unif rm pressure dis-tributi n is the smallest p ssible length with ut separati n
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ENGINEERING JOURNAL / FIRST QUARTER / 1999
30
55
CASE A: NO MOMENT—NO UPLIFTCASE B: SMALL MOMENT WITHOUT UPLIFT
 M Pe M  M ePPP  M  N eY N e N e
Fig. 2. No Moment - No Uplift Fig. 3. Small Moment Without Uplift 
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between the base plate and the supp rting c ncrete. This 1. Assumethattheresultantc mpressivebearingstressc rresp nds t the c mm n elastic limit where any addi- is directly under the c lumn flange.ti nal m ment w uld initiate separati n between the base 2. Assume a linear strain distributi n such that the an-plate and the supp rting c ncrete. ch r r d strain is dependent n the bearing areaCase D ev lves fr m Case C by the additi n f suf- strain.cient bending m ment t require anch r r ds t prevent 3. Assume independent strain distributi n.separati n between the base plate and the supp rting c n-All three meth ds summarized by AISC assume a lin-crete. This is a c mm n situati n f r fixed base platesear triangular distributi n f the resultant c mpressivein structural ffice practice. That is, a rigid frame with abearing stress. This implies that the beam-c lumn basefixed base plate will usually attract en ugh bending m -plate has n additi nal capacity after the extreme fiberment t require anch r r ds t prevent uplift f the basereaches the c ncrete bearing limit state. The auth rs pr -plate fr m the supp rting c ncrete.p se that a unif rm distributi n f the resultant c mpres-sive bearing stress is m re appr priate when utilizingLRFD.If there is n bending m ment r axial tensi n at the baseCase B, a beam-c lumn with a small m ment and nf a beam-c lumn, the anch r r ds resist shear l ads butuplift at the base plate elevati n, is sh wn in Figure 3.are n t required t prevent uplift r separati n f the baseThe m ment is expressed as l cated at s me ec-plate fr m the f undati n. Case A, a beam-c lumn withcentricity ( ) fr m the beam-c lumn neutral axis.n m ment r uplift at the base plate elevati n, is sh wnin Figure 2.0(4)006If the magnitude f the bending m ment is small relativet the magnitude f the axial l ad, the c lumn anch r0r ds are n t required t restrain uplift r separati n 6the base plate fr m the f undati n. In service, they nly2resist shear. They are als necessary f r the stability the structure during c nstructi n.(5)AISC addresses three different variati ns f the elastic2meth d when using an ultimate strength appr ach f r thewhere:design f beam-c lumn base plates subjected t bendingbearing length, in.m ment.
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ENGINEERING JOURNAL / FIRST QUARTER / 1999
31
31
 
CASE C: MAXIMUM MOMENT WITHOUTUPLIFTCONCRETE BEARING LIMIT STATELRFD Specification RequirementsCASE D: MOMENT WITH UPLIFT
 N  M ePP  M  M eePP  M P N e N Y N e Y P P N P . f A
Fig. 5. Moment With Uplift Fig. 4. Maximum Moment Without Uplift 
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shear. Case D, a beam-c lumn with sufficient m ment tcause uplift at the base plate elevati n, is sh wn in Figure5. This is the m st c mm n case in design practice, espe-The maximum m ment with ut base plate uplift is as-ciallyf rrigidframesdesignedt resistlateralearthquakesumed t ccur when the c ncrete bearing limit state isr wind l adings n the building r structure.reached ver a bearing area c ncentric with the appliedl ad at its maximum eccentricity. If the eccentricity ex-ceeds , the tendency f r uplift f the plate is assumed t6ccur.Thisassumesalinearpressuredistributi ninacc r-dance with elastic the ry and n tensi n capacity betweenthe base plate and supp rting c ncrete surfaces. Case C, abeam-c lumn with the maximum m ment with ut upliftat the base plate elevati n, is sh wn in Figure 4.(4)06(4)(7)606T satisfy static equilibrium at the c ncrete bearing limitstate, the centr id f the c ncrete bearing reacti n ( )mustbealignedwiththeline- f-acti n ftheappliedaxial6l ad.2 262The LRFD Specificati n defines the c ncrete bearing(6)3limit state in Secti n J9.(8)When the m ment at the beam-c lumn base plate exceedsOn the full area f a c ncrete supp rt:, anch r r ds are designed t resist uplift as well as0 85 (LRFD J9-1)6
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