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Six sigma
INDEX
S.NOCONTENTSP.G.NO1Six sigma History22What is six sigma73Why is six sigma fascinating104What is DPO & DPMO in six sigma?145Six Sigma Quality Level166Six Sigma Statistics187Six Sigma Calculation198Case Study on Defect Rate 219Six Sigma capability Improvement2210Methodology of Six Sigma2511Six Sigma in Business2712Six Sigma Implementation29
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Six sigma
Six Sigma HistorySix Sigma
stands for Six Standard Deviations (Sigma is theGreek letter used to represent standard deviation instatistics) from mean
. Six Sigma
methodology provides thetechniques and tools to improve the capability and reducethe defects in any process.It was started in Motorola, in its manufacturingdivision, where millions of parts are made using the sameprocess repeatedly. Eventually Six Sigma evolved andapplied to other non manufacturing processes. Today youcan apply Six Sigma to many fields. Six Sigma methodologiesimprove any existing business process by constantlyreviewing and re-tuning the process Six Sigmamethodologies can also be used to create a brand newbusiness process from ground up using
DFSS
(
Design For Six Sigma
) principles Six Sigma Strives for perfection. It allowsfor only
3.4
defects per million opportunities for eachproduct or service transaction. Six Sigma relies heavily onstatistical techniques to reduce defects and measure quality.Six Sigma incorporates the basic principles and techniquesused in Business, Statistics, and Engineering. These threeform the core elements of Six Sigma. Six Sigma improves theprocess performance, decreases variation and maintains
consistent

quality
of the process output. This leads todefect reduction and improvement in profits, product qualityand customer satisfaction.
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Six sigma
Motorola claims that its peopleinvented Six Sigma, but the principles behind themethodology date back to 1809. The roots of Six Sigma as ameasurement standard can be traced back to Carl FrederickGauss (1777-1855) who introduced the concept of thenormal bell curve. Many measurement standards (Cpk, ZeroDefects, etc.) later came on the scene but credit for coiningthe term "Six Sigma" goes to a Motorola engineer named BillSmith. (Incidentally, "Six Sigma" is a federally registeredtrademark of Motorola). In the early and mid-1980s withChairman Bob Galvin at the helm, Motorola engineersdecided that the traditional quality levels -- measuringdefects in thousands of opportunities -- didn't provideenough granularity. Instead, they wanted to measure thedefects per million opportunities. Motorola developed thisnew standard and created the methodology and neededcultural change associated with it. Six Sigma helped Motorolarealize powerful bottom-line results in their organization - infact, they documented more than \$16 Billion in savings as aresult of our Six Sigma efforts. Six Sigma as a measurementstandard in product variation can be traced back to the1920's when Walter Shewhart showed that three sigma fromthe mean is the point where a process requires correctionBefore we dive into the statistics of the bell curve, let's talk amoment about variation. Variation is defined as deviationfrom expectation. Every process and activity has inherentvariation. If you're making widgets, every widget will vary
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