multi-workflow architecture that is based on four levels of management to ensure effective analysis and verification of correct and complete workflow process. Then in the fifthsection, we explain the proposed environment in a dynamicvirtual enterprise cooperation algorithm. Finally, we close thiswork with conclusions and perspectives.II.
Modeling through processes, whose areas of applicationwere relatively small in the beginning, has grown steadily. It isnecessary today as an indispensable tool, for the managementof organizations. The failure of organizational processes insoftware architectures gave, among others, birth to workflow tomeet a variety of requirements including the optimization of business processes, support and control.A workflow  consists of the automation of a businessprocess, either wholly or partially, whereby documents,information or tasks are passed from one participant to anotherfor action according to a set of procedural rules . Having theworkflow definition, a large number of business activities in anorganization can be classified in the category of workflow. Forexample, placing a purchasing order, applying for a bank loan,renting a car, etc.
Classification of workflow systems
A major classification scheme of workflow systems hasbeen proposed in literature review [6, 7]. McReady ranked theworkflows into:
Ad hoc workflows
used to manage core processes in acompany.
managing processes thatevolves quite frequently.
corresponding to state-oriented processes with a well-defined procedure.
involving highly structuredprocess with almost no changes.
WfMC Reference Model
The WfMC (Workflow Management Coalition) hasdeveloped a reference model for workflow technology .Figure 2 illustrates this model .
Figure 1. WfMC Reference Model.
The Workflow Management Coalition reference model,below, defines five components of workflow, the fiveinterfaces to the workflow enactment services.The main objective of the reference model is to providestandard interfaces and data exchange, defining specificationsfor interoperability between heterogeneous WF engines. Itconsists of a general description of the structure of a WfMSwherein five components of workflow are introduced:
is the process definition;
is the clientapplication;
is the interface to the programsinvoked by the business process;
allows oneworkflow system to interact with another workflow system;
is for the administration and monitoring of thesystem.III.
NTEROPERABILITY AND COOPERATION BETWEENWORKFLOW
In order to improve their productivity, companies expresseda great need for openness and cooperation worldwide. Theyneed to ally with other companies with complementary skills tocooperate and carry out projects that are not within reach of asingle company (eg. mergers, extension of companies intointernational structures, intensive outsourcing of services, etc.).Accordingly, companies express their needs in terms of business relations via the Web and tend to automate theirinteraction and cooperation. This business cooperation and theautomation process of manual interaction via the Web are oftenreferred to as Business-to-Business (B2B). B2B applicationsrefer to using computer systems (eg Web servers, network services, databases, etc.) to conduct business interactions (egexchange of business documents, product sales, etc.) betweendifferent partners.This has favored the emergence of new corporatestructures, either on the same or on different Clouds, calledvirtual enterprises. These allow to associate a group of partners,scattered in time and/or space to a specific project. Theycombine their respective resources and expertise, and cooperateto achieve common objectives based on informationtechnology.
We distinguish two types of virtual enterprises; Staticvirtual enterprises and dynamic virtual enterprises . In thiscontext, we carried out a comparative study between the twotypes of businesses that have been summarized in the followingtable (Table 1).The cooperation should ensure flexibility, respect of theexpertise of companies, the preservation of their workflow andthe integration of their existing WFMS. Subsequently, we canoffer a synthesis of the main issues of interoperability of workflow (WF) in two major aspects:1.
heterogeneity between partners on different levels (partof dynamic virtual enterprise):
Syntactic heterogeneity (WF specificationlanguages).
Semantic heterogeneity (concepts of businessprocess modeling).
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 11, No. 6, June 201314http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500