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Implementation of Back Propagation Algorithm For Estimation of Stress and Strain of Alloy Wheel

Implementation of Back Propagation Algorithm For Estimation of Stress and Strain of Alloy Wheel

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This paper presents estimation of stress and strain of a Rapid prototype product using artificial neural network (ANN). Back propagation algorithm is used to train the ANN topology. 3D model of alloy wheel is developed by using PROE. The model is analyzed using ANSYS to find the Von Mises stress and equivalent strain. The algorithm is trained using 15 values in the input layer of the ANN topology and two values in the output layer: stress and strain that are to be estimated during the testing stage of BPA algorithm. The number of nodes in the hidden layer for BPA varies depending upon the weight updating equations.
This paper presents estimation of stress and strain of a Rapid prototype product using artificial neural network (ANN). Back propagation algorithm is used to train the ANN topology. 3D model of alloy wheel is developed by using PROE. The model is analyzed using ANSYS to find the Von Mises stress and equivalent strain. The algorithm is trained using 15 values in the input layer of the ANN topology and two values in the output layer: stress and strain that are to be estimated during the testing stage of BPA algorithm. The number of nodes in the hidden layer for BPA varies depending upon the weight updating equations.

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IMPLEMENTATION OF BACK PROPAGATIONALGORITHM FOR ESTIMATION OF STRESSAND STRAIN OF ALLOY WHEEL
1
R.I.Rajidap Neshtar and
2
S.Purushothaman
1
R.I.Rajidap Neshtar, Research Scholar 
Department of Mechanical Engineering,Vinayaka Missions University,Salem, India.
2
Dr.S.Purushothaman, Professor,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,PET Engineering College,Tirunelveli District-627117, India
Abstract 
 — 
This paper presents estimation of stress and strain of aRapid prototype product using artificial neural network (ANN).Back propagation algorithm is used to train the ANN topology.3D model of alloy wheel is developed by using PROE. The modelis analyzed using ANSYS to find the Von Mises stress andequivalent strain. The algorithm is trained using 15 values in theinput layer of the ANN topology and two values in the outputlayer: stress and strain that are to be estimated during the testingstage of BPA algorithm. The number of nodes in the hidden layerfor BPA varies depending upon the weight updating equations.
 
Keywords- Back Propagation Algorithm, Finite Element Method,Structural Analysis, Alloy Wheel, Mean Squared Error 
.
I.
 
I
 NTRODUCTION
 Rapid prototyping plays an important role in manufacturingsample products for quick approval of the customers. Colorscan be added to the products for aesthetic appearance toimpress the customers. Different functionalities can be provided in the RP product and put into use to verify theusability. RP products are manufactured with layeredManufacturing. It is the process of deposition of material layer  by layer. Continuous solid wire is melted, deposited on a non-sticky platen. The melt solidifies. During this process, the platen is moved in x, y directions as per a sequence and a sheetof solidified layered material is formed with a certain thickness.This is called first layer of deposition and the platen is loweredto receive the next layer of deposition. The process is repeateduntil, the entire height of the RP product is achieved. Thematerial is not deposited during layering whenever holes,curves, slopes are to be provided in the product.The sequence of RP manufacturing is presented as follows:
Step 1:
 Created computer aided drafting and design of the RP product.
Step 2:
 Analyse the model using Finite element software likeANSYS, NASTRAN, if the RP product is the end product. Otherwise, if the product is only for a display ocustomer approval process, no analysis is required for small sized RP product.
Step 3:
 Transfer the final RP model to RP machine. The softwarein the RP machine will convert the model suitably for layered manufacturing.
In step 2, an alternative procedure is proposed. After analyzing the RP product with FEM software, the outputs of the FEM software along with the inputs of FEM are used astraining patterns for the proposed artificial neural network algorithms. The algorithms learn the input output relationshipof the values used an input and obtained as outputs for analyzing the RP product. This type of analysis can beextended to all types of RP products as well as other engineering products.1 Companies working on unique products and companieswhich modify the size of a particular RP product can avail the proposed.2. Such companies need not obtain costly FEM software;instead they can use the proposed approach to save theinvestment of the FEM software for obtaining the stress, strainvalues of the RP product.II.
 
REVIEW
 
OF
 
LITERATUREWenbin et al, 2002, applied optimization algorithms likegenetic algorithm for the outputs of FEM. Attention is devotedto examining the effects of critical geometric features on thestress distribution at the interface between the blade and disk using a feature-based geometry modeling tool and theoptimization techniques. Various aspects of this problem are presented: (1) geometry representation using ICAD andtransfer of the geometry to a finite element analysis code, (2)application of boundary conditions/loads and retrieval of analysis results, (3) exploration of various optimizationmethods and strategies including gradient-based and modernstochastic methods. A product model from Rolls-Royce is usedas a base design in the optimization.Manevitz et al, 2005, Basic learning algorithms and theneural network model are applied to the problem of mesh
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 11, No. 6, June 201368http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
adaptation for the finite-element method for solving time-dependent partial differential equations. Time series predictionvia the neural network methodology is used to predict the areas
of ‘‘interest’’ in order to obtain an effective mesh
refinement atthe appropriate times. This allows for increased numericalaccuracy with the same computational resources as compared
with more ‘‘traditional’’ methods.
 Toraño et al, 2008, used neural networks to estimate stress
 – 
strain of long mining wall. This knowledge and the detailedstructural and constructive characteristics of the supportsystems allow the simulation of the behavior of the roof supports through finite element method.Mohsen Ostad Shabani et al, 2011, used ANN and FEM for estimating the yield stress, Ultimate Tensile Strength,maximum force and elongation percentage of solidification inA356 alloy. The prediction of ANN model with one output wasfound to be in good agreement with experimental data. Theresults show that the prediction of neural network modellingwith four outputs cannot really give a good performance andshow the best relationship between each individual output andits inputs.Mohsen Ostad Shabani et al, 2012, developed ANN modelto predict the hardness, yield stress, ultimate tensile strengthand elongation percentage. The prediction of ANN model wasfound to be in good agreement with experimental data. It isconcluded that considerable savings in terms of cost and timecould be obtained by using neural network model.Hyuntae et al, 2013, developed noncommercial ANNsimulator with graphical user interface (GUI) to assist in rapiddata modeling and analysis in the engineering diffraction field.This software has been used to train and simulate the finiteelement modeling (FEM) data for a fiber composite system, both forward and inverse. The forward neural network simulation precisely reduplicates FEM results several orders of magnitude faster than the slow original FEM. The simulator GUI also reveals that output node size for materials parameter and input normalization method for strain data are critical trainconditions in inverse network..III.
 
M
ETHODOLOGY
 ANSYS 14 software is used for analyzing the rapid prototypes. An alloy wheel is considered for analyzing theestimation accuracy of artificial neural network (ANN)algorithm. The analysis conditions of the wheel is presented.Load deformation response characteristics of the wheel aredetermined using a finite element computer analysis. Results of this analysis is used as training patterns for the ANN algorithm.Artificial neural network algorithm is used to supplementthe estimation of stress and strain values of the RP models. Theresult of the analysis of alloy wheel is obtained both ingraphical and in numerical values. The numerical values of stress and strain are used to train the artificial neural network (ANN) topology by using Back propagation algorithm (BPA).The ANN is trained using 15 values in the input layer twovalues in the output layer: stress and strain that are to beestimated during the testing stage of ANN algorithms. Thenumber of nodes in the hidden layer varies depending upon theweight updating equations. Exact number of nodes, is fixed based on the trial and error method, in which the accuracy of estimation by the BPA is used as the criteria for the performance of ANN algorithm.The training of patterns used for the ANN are chosen fromthe stress and strain data generated using ANSYS software.During the training process, mesh node numbers are presentedin the input layer of the ANN and correspondingly, stress andstrain values are presented in the output layer of the ANN.Depending upon the type of values present in the patterns, thelearning capability of the ANN algorithms varies.
 A.
 
 Back Propagation Algorithm (BPA)
The concept of steepest-descent method is used in BPA toreach a global minimum. The number of layers are decidedinitially. The number of nodes in the hidden layers are decided.It uses all the 3 layers (input, hidden and output). Inputlayer uses 15 nodes, hidden layer has 2 nodes and the outputlayer includes two nodes.Random weights are used for the connections betweennodes. Error at the output layer of the network is calculated by presenting a pattern to the input layer of the network. Weightsare updated between the layers by propagating the error  backwards till the input layer. All the training patterns are
Figure 1 Flow-chart of BPA
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 11, No. 6, June 201369http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 presented to the network for learning. This forms one-iteration.At the end of iteration, test patterns are presented to ANN andthe prediction performance of ANN is evaluated. Further training of ANN is continued till the desired prediction performance is reached.The concept of steepest-descent method is used in BPA toreach a global minimum. The number of layers are decidedinitially. The number of nodes in the hidden layers are decided.It uses all the 3 layers (input, hidden and output). Flow-chartfor BPA is shown in Figure 1.
 B. Steps Involved In Training Bpa
Forward PropagationThe hidden layer connections of the network are initializedwith weights.The inputs and outputs of a pattern are presented to thenetwork.The output of each node in the successive layers iscalculated by using equation (1).O
(output of a node)
 
=1/(1+exp(-
w
ij
x
i
))
 
(1)For each pattern, error is calculated using equation (2).E(p) = (1/2)
(d(p)
 – 
o(p))
2
(2)Reverse PropagationFor the nodes, the error in the output layer is calculated usingequation (3).
(output layer)
=o(1-o)(d-o) (3)The weights between output layer and hidden layer areupdated by using equation (4).W
(n+1)
= W
(n)
+
 
(output layer)
o
(hidden layer)
(4)
 
The error for the nodes in the hidden layer is calculated byusing equation (5).
(hidden layer)
= o(1-o)

(output layer)
W
(updated weights between hidden & outputlayer)
(5)
 
The weights between hidden and input layer are updated byusing equation (6).W
(n+1)
= W
(n)
+
 
(hidden layer)
o
(input layer)
 
(6)
 
The above steps complete one weight updation.The above steps are followed for the second pattern for subsequent weight updation. When all the training patterns are presented, a cycle of iteration or epoch is completed. Theerrors of all the training patterns are calculated and displayedon the monitor as the MSE.E
(MSE)
=
E
(p)
(7)IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Static analysis calculates the effects of steady loadingconditions on a structure. Static analysis, however, includessteady inertia loads (such as gravity and rotational velocity),and time-varying loads that can be approximated as staticequivalent loads. Static analysis is used to determine thedisplacements, stresses, strains, and forces in structures or components caused by loads that do not induce significantinertia and damping effects. Steady loading and response
conditions are assumed; that is, the loads and the structure’s
response are assumed to vary slowly with respect to time.
Bounding Box
Length X 0.2 mLength Y 0.5 mLength Z 0.5 m
Properties
Volume 5.2943e-003 Mass 41.561 kgCentroid X -8.688e-002 mCentroid Y 4.5371e-005 mCentroid Z -3.5088e-005 mMoment of Inertia Ip1 1.4413 kg·m²Moment of Inertia Ip2 0.80226 kg·m²Moment of Inertia Ip3 0.80168 kg·m²
Statistics
 Nodes 22941Elements 12652
Structural Steel > Constants
Density 7850 kg m^-3Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 1.2e-005 C^-1Specific Heat 434 J kg^-1 C^-1Thermal Conductivity 60.5 W m^-1 C^-1Resistivity 1.7e-007 ohm m
Figure 2 shows the amount of von
 – 
Mises stress in (Pa) presented at various nodes mentioned in the x-axis. Figure 3 presents strain on the alloy wheel.The node number is given as one of the inputs at the inputlayer of the ANN topology. Based on the requirements of theoutputs, number of input parameters can be increased. Table 2 presents the numbers of nodes used in the input layer, hiddenlayer and output layer during training.ANSYS 14 software is used for analyzing the alloy wheel.The numerical values of stress are used to train the artificialneural network (ANN) topology by using Back propagationalgorithm (BPA). The training of patterns used for the ANNalgorithms are chosen from the strain data generated usingANSYS program. During the training process, node numbersare presented in the input layer of the ANN andcorrespondingly, strain values are presented in the output layer of the ANN. Depending upon the type of values present in the patterns, the learning capability of the ANN algorithms varies.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 11, No. 6, June 201370http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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