One who upholds the principle of liberty, especially in-dividual liberty of thought and action.—
Webster's New InternationalDictionary.
It is in the sense defined above that the word Libertarianis used throughout this book. In Metaphysics, a Libertarianis one who believes in the doctrine of freedom of the will, asopposed to necessitarianism. As the Libertarians quoted arenearly all believers in determinism (the opposite of the theoryof "free
and as the questions they discuss are all sociolog-ical, they must not be confounded with the advocates of "freewill" in metaphysical discussions.It will be noticed that the Libertarians cited are chosen fromdifferent political parties and economic schools; there areRepublicans, Democrats, Socialists, Single-Taxers, Anarchists,and Woman's Rights advocates; and it will be perceived, also,that these master minds are in perfect accord when treating ofliberty. To point out that some of them are not always con-sistent in their application of the principles of liberty is novalid argument against it, but merely shows that they did notaccept liberty as their guiding principle, nor perhaps believein its universal application. The principle of equal libertyhas been approached from many standpoints by these writersand applied to various fields. The only question we have hereto consider
whether they have proved that liberty in particularhuman relations is a logical deduction from correct reasoning;and this the writer maintains they have done.It is shown by the writers quoted that liberty has beenapplied to various fields, and has proved successful wherevertried. Many of the earlier Libertarians, living in differentcountries, wrote without knowledge of the others; yet the readerwill detect a note of harmony between them. Some of them