Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword or section
Like this
2Activity

Table Of Contents

0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Bahrain Crs

Bahrain Crs

Ratings: (0)|Views: 385 |Likes:
Published by samlagrone
Bahrain Crs
Bahrain Crs

More info:

Published by: samlagrone on Jul 31, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

09/20/2013

pdf

text

original

 
CRS Report for Congress
 Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
Kenneth Katzman
Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs July 16, 2013
Congressional Research Service
7-5700www.crs.gov95-1013
 
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. PolicyCongressional Research Service
Summary
The uprising against Bahrain’s Al Khalifa royal family that began in Bahrain on February 14,2011, amidst other regional uprisings, has not come close to changing Bahrain’s regime.However, the mostly Shiite opposition shows no signs of ending its campaign to achieve its statedgoal of establishing a constitutional monarchy or, at the very least, winning greatly increased political influence and rights. The crisis has demonstrated that the grievances of the Shiitemajority over the distribution of power and economic opportunities were not satisfied by themodest reform efforts instituted during 1999-2010.The government has held dialogue with the opposition to try to address its grievances. A “nationaldialogue” held in July 2011 reached consensus on a few modest political reforms. Hopes for resolution were elevated further by a pivotal report by a government-appointed “IndependentCommission of Inquiry” (BICI), released November 23, 2011, which was critical of thegovernment’s actions against the unrest. The government asserts it implemented most of the 26BICI recommendations, but outside human rights groups assessed that overall implementation has been modest. After more than one year of impasse, both sides resumed a dialogue in February2013, but it has made little concrete progress, by all accounts.The Obama Administration has not called for an end to the Al Khalifa regime, but it has criticizedits human rights abuses and urged it to undertake more substantial political reform. The U.S.criticism has angered some Al Khalifa officials but it has also dissatisfied human rights activistswho assert that the United States is downplaying regime abuses because of U.S. dependence onthe security relationship with Bahrain. Bahrain has provided key support for U.S. interests—  particularly the containment of Iran—by hosting U.S. naval headquarters for the Gulf for over 60years. The United States signed a formal defense pact with Bahrain in 1991 and has designatedBahrain a “major non-NATO ally,” that entitled it to sales of sophisticated U.S. weapons systems.Partly to address criticism from human rights advocates and some Members of Congress, in 2011the Administration put on hold a proposed sale of armored vehicles and anti-tank weapons. Since2012, the State Department has held up some sales of small arms and light weapons that could poentially be used against protesters. In mid-May 2012 the Administration announced that itwould proceed with the sale of other arms sales to Bahrain that it can only use for externaldefense.Consumed by its own crisis, Bahrain has joined with but deferred to other GCC powers to resolve political crises in Libya, Syria, and Yemen. Bahrain has strongly criticized the entry of the Iran- backed Shiite group Lebanese Hezbollah into the Syria conflict on the side of President Bashar AlAssad.Fueling Shiite unrest is the fact that Bahrain is poorer than most of the other Persian Gulf monarchies and therefore lacks ample resources to significantly improve Shiite standards of living. In 2004, the United States and Bahrain signed a free trade agreement (FTA); legislationimplementing it was signed January 11, 2006 (P.L. 109-169). The unrest has further strained,although not crippled, Bahrain’s economy.
 
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. PolicyCongressional Research Service
Contents
The Political Structure, Reform, and Human Rights ....................................................................... 1
 
The Ruling Family and Its Dynamics ........................................................................................ 1
 
Executive and Legislative Powers ............................................................................................. 2
 
Political Groups and Elections .................................................................................................. 3
 
2002 Elections ..................................................................................................................... 4
 
2006 Elections: Allegations of Gerrymandering and “Importing Sunnis” .......................... 5
 
The 2010 Elections: Prelude to the Uprising....................................................................... 5
 
2011 Uprising: Origin, Developments, and Prognosis .............................................................. 6
 
Crown Prince Salman’s “Seven Principles” Reform Plan ................................................... 7
 
The Saudi-led Intervention .................................................................................................. 7
 
First “National Dialogue” Held ........................................................................................... 8
 
Dialogue Recommendations Implemented By Constitutional Amendment ........................ 9
 
Opposition Counter-Proposal: Manama Document .......................................................... 10
 
September 24-October 1 Special Election ......................................................................... 10
 
BICI Report on Handling of the Unrest: Reaction and Implementation ........................... 11
 
Post-BICI Report: Continued Unrest And Deadlock ........................................................ 13
 
Dialogue Resumes in February 2013 ................................................................................ 14
 
Concerns About Possible Insurgency ................................................................................ 15
 
U.S. Posture on the Uprising ............................................................................................. 16
 
Other Human Rights Issues ..................................................................................................... 19
 
U.N. Scrutiny .................................................................................................................... 19
 
Women’s Rights ................................................................................................................ 20
 
Religious Freedom ............................................................................................................ 20
 
Media Freedoms ................................................................................................................ 20
 
Labor Rights ...................................................................................................................... 21
 
Human Trafficking ............................................................................................................ 21
 
Executions and Torture ...................................................................................................... 21
 
U.S.-Bahrain Security and Foreign Policy Relations ..................................................................... 22
 
U.S. Naval Headquarters in Bahrain ....................................................................................... 22
 
Defense Cooperation Agreement (DCA) ................................................................................. 24
 
Cooperation With U.S. Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan ................................................... 24
 
U.S. Arms Transfers and Military Aid ..................................................................................... 25
 
Foreign Military Financing (FMF) .................................................................................... 26
 
Excess Defense Articles (EDA) ........................................................................................ 26
 
International Military Education and Training Funds (IMET) .......................................... 26
 
Major Foreign Military Sales (FMS) From Bahrain National Funds ................................ 27
 
September 2011 Humvee and TOW Sale .......................................................................... 27
 
Relations with and Cooperation Against Iran .......................................................................... 29
 
Bahrain-Iran Economic Ties and Bahraini Enforcement of Iran Sanctions ...................... 30
 
Anti-Terrorism Cooperation .................................................................................................... 31
 
Other Foreign Policy Issues ..................................................................................................... 32
 
Extensive Ties to Saudi Arabia .......................................................................................... 32
 
Other GCC ........................................................................................................................ 32
 
Syria Issue ......................................................................................................................... 33
 
Iraq .................................................................................................................................... 33
 
Qatar Territorial Disputes .................................................................................................. 33
 
Arab-Israeli Issues ............................................................................................................. 34
 

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->