Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
0Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Hall Effect on Unsteady MHD Free Convection Flow Past an Impulsively Started Porous Plate with Viscous and Joule’s Dissipation

Hall Effect on Unsteady MHD Free Convection Flow Past an Impulsively Started Porous Plate with Viscous and Joule’s Dissipation

Ratings: (0)|Views: 13 |Likes:
S.P.Anjali Devi, K.Shailendhra , C.V.Ramesan
S.P.Anjali Devi, K.Shailendhra , C.V.Ramesan

More info:

Categories:Types, Research
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/14/2014

pdf

text

original

 
 64International Journal of 
Science and Engineering Investigations
vol. 1, issue 6, July 2012ISSN: 2251-8843
Hall Effect on Unsteady MHD Free Convection Flow Past an
Impulsively Started Porous Plate with Viscous and Joule’s
Dissipation
S.P.Anjali Devi
1
, K.Shailendhra
 
2
 
,
 
C.V.Ramesan
 
3
1
Department of Applied Mathematics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046. India
2
Dept. of Mathematics, Amrita School of Engineering, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Ettimadai, Coimbatore 641 112. India
3
 
Department of Mathematics, MPMMSN Trusts College, Shoranur, Palghat District 679122. India
(
1
anjalidevi_s_p@yahoo.co.in,
2
3 
Abstract 
- An investigation on the nonlinear problem of theeffect of Hall current on the unsteady free convection flow of viscous, incompressible, electrically conducting fluid past animpulsively started infinite vertical porous plate is carried out,when a uniform magnetic field is applied transverse to the plate, while the viscous and
Joule’s dissipations are taken into
account. The solutions of the coupled nonlinear partialdifferential equations have been obtained by using finitedifference methods. Hall current effect on primary andsecondary velocity, skin friction and rate of heat transfer areanalyzed in detail for heating and cooling of the plate byconvection currents. Physical interpretations and justificationsare rendered for various results obtained.Keywords-
 Hall current; unsteady MHD flow; natural convection; viscous an
d Joule’s dissipation.
 I.
 
I
 NTRODUCTION
When a body moves in the upper atmosphere of earth onemust consider the dynamics of various physical phenomenainto consideration and nevertheless when such a problem ismathematically modeled one usually makes a compromise andneglects a few of them to make the problem amenable for mathematical analysis depending upon the methods employed.Here, we consider the problem of Hall effect on thehydromagnetic free convection flow of ionized air past aimpulsively moving vertical plate in the upper atmosphere,
taking into consideration the viscous and Joule’s dissipation. In
what follows we narrate the significance of the various physical phenomena considered. It must be kept in mind thatthe literature on all these various aspects are so vast that onecannot do justice in an article of this type to provide thecomplete literature survey and hence only very relevant andrecent works are cited.
 A. Free Convection and MHD
Free convection flows arise when buoyancy forces due to
density differences occur and these act as “driving forces”.
The density differences are caused by temperature differencesand hence such problems are mathematically exciting owingto the coupling between momentum equation and heatequation and nonlinearity.It is well known that it is possible to alter the flow and heattransfer around an object in upper atmosphere by applying amagnetic field provided the air is rarefied and sufficientlyionized. In fact, it has been established [1] that the skinfriction and heat transfer can be substantially reduced byapplying a transverse magnetic field. In the field of aerodynamic heating, the problem of providing heat protection by MHD effects gained a great momentum after the classicalwork [2]. Fortunately, the magnetic Reynolds numbers insuch flows are not very high so that the induced magnetic fieldcan be neglected. This amounts to saying that theelectromagnetic equations are decoupled from momentum andheat equations whereas the latter two involve theelectromagnetic variables.The following references are an excellent source of information in this regard: [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10],[11]. One may also refer to the survey article [12] for further details.
 B. Hall Effect 
 The upper atmosphere is ionized and is electricallyconducting and its electrical conductivity depends on various parameters like location, time, height, season, etc, and it isanisotropic. Under such situations, when the number densityof electrons is relatively small, it becomes pertinent to notethat the charged particles are tied to the lines of force when astrong magnetic field is applied, and this prevents their motiontransverse to the magnetic field. Then the tendency of thecurrent to flow in a direction normal to both the electric andmagnetic fields is called Hall effect and the correspondingcurrent is known as Hall current. .There are a good number of works on Hall effect and onemay refer to [13], [14], [15], [16], [17].
 
International Journal of Science and Engineering Investigations, Volume 1, Issue 6, July 201265www.IJSEI.com Paper ID: 10612-12ISSN: 2251-8843
C. Suction
Generally, the low energy fluid in the boundary layer issucked through the wall to prevent boundary layer separation.Suction is one of the techniques employed in the boundarylayer control in aerodynamics and space science and it iseffectively used to reduce the skin friction as well as heattransfer around the moving body. Suction is also usedeffectively to increase the lift on airfoils too. In thisconnection, one may refer to [4], [5], [6], [18], [19].
 D. Viscous Dissipation
The heat generated per unit time and unit volume byinternal friction is called the viscous dissipation. In the caseof air, for a temperature difference of 10
o
F, a velocity of theorder 150
1
ms
will make the viscous dissipation termcomparable with other terms [20]. Indeed, it is known [21]that significant viscous dissipation may occur in naturalconvection in various devices which are subject to largedecelerations or which operate at high rotative speeds. Inaddition, important viscous dissipation effects may also be present in stronger gravitational fields and in processeswherein the scale of the processes is very large, for example,on larger planets, in large masses of gas in space, and ingeological processes in fluids internal to various bodies. Onemay refer to the works of [7], [21], in this regard.
 E.
 Joule’s Dissipation
 
Apart from the viscous dissipation, in the MHD flows,
Joule’s dissipation also acts a volumetric heat source [
22],[23] and this represents the electromagnetic energy dissipatedon account of heating of the medium by the electric current. Itdepends on the strength of the applied magnetic field. Indeed,in MHD flows there is not only energy transfer between theelectromagnetic field and the fluid flow, but also a portion of the kinetic energy is converted to thermal energy by means of Joule heating. When a stronger magnetic field is applied theflow is retarded severely and also there is a considerableheating of the fluid due to Joule effect. Joule heating causes,in general, an increase of temperature and its gradient, mainlyin the temperature boundary layer [24]. Hence, one mustconsider this effect while modeling problems related toatmospheric flights.To understand the importance of and the current interestson the investigations involving Hall current, viscous and
Joule’s dissipation, one may refer to
[25], [26], [27], [28],[29], [30], [31], [32], [33], [34].Apart from the application mentioned supra, theinvestigations of heat transfer in
magnetohydrodynamic
(MHD) flows past a porous plate under the influence of amagnetic field find useful applications in many engineering problems such as MHD generator, plasma studies, nuclear reactors, geothermal energy extractions and the boundarylayer control in the field of aerodynamics [35].However, to the best of the knowledge of the authors, sofar no attempt has been made to study the effect of Hallcurrent on the free convection flow past an impulsively startedvertical porous plate in the presence of a uniform transverse
magnetic field, taking into account viscous and Joule’s
dissipations. The main focus of the paper is to gain physicalinsights and hence the nonlinear problem considered here issolved using a simple and straight forward explicit finitedifference method. An attempt has been made to provide physical reasoning or justification wherever possible.Researchers interested in rigorous mathematical methods tosolve this problem may refer to a related problem addressed in[32] and adopt a similar procedure. However, it should benoted that the perturbation technique employed in the citedwork is cumbersome and time-consuming.II.
 
FORMULATION
 
OF
 
THE
 
PROBLEMAn unsteady free convection flow of an electricallyconducting, viscous, incompressible fluid past an impulsivelystarted infinite vertical porous plate, in the presence of atransverse magnetic field with the effect of Hall current isconsidered. The initial temperature of the fluid is the same asthat of the fluid, but at time
0
the porous plate startsmoving impulsively in its own plane with a constant velocity
0
and its temperature instantaneously rises or falls to
'
w
 which thereafter is maintained as such. The fluid is assumedto have constant properties except that the influence of thedensity variations with the temperature, following the well-known Boussinesq approximation [36] is considered only inthe body force terms.The
 x
-axis is taken along the infinite vertical porous wallin the upward direction and
 y
-axis normal to the wall. Aconstant magnetic field of magnitude
'0
 B
is applied in
 y
- direction. Since the effect of Hall current gives rise to aforce in
 z 
direction, which induces a cross flow in thatdirection, the flow becomes three dimensional. Let
vu
,
and
w
denote the velocity components in the
y x
,
and
 z 
 directions respectively. Let
'0
v
be the constant suctionvelocity.The governing equations of the problem are as follows:
0
q
(1)
)(1)(1
 B j g qq q
      
(2)
    
22
jq
 p
(3)
 
International Journal of Science and Engineering Investigations, Volume 1, Issue 6, July 201266www.IJSEI.com Paper ID: 10612-12ISSN: 2251-8843
ee
 p B jne Bq E  j
  
 
(4)
 B E 
 
(5)
0
B
(6)The above equations are equation of continuity,
momentum equation, energy equation, generalized Ohm’
s
Law and the two Maxwell’s equations respectively. Here,
q
 is the velocity field,
the temperature field,
thetemperature of the fluid at infinity,
 B
the magnetic inductionvector,
 E 
the electric field vector,
 j
the current densityvector,
 p
the pressure of the fluid,
e
 p
the electron pressure,
  
the density of the fluid,
 
the coefficient of viscosity,
 
 the kinematic coefficient of viscosity,
the thermalconductivity,
e
the electron charge,
e
n
number density of electron,
 p
the specific heat capacity at constant pressure,
the viscous dissipation function and
the time. Theviscous dissipation function, for an incompressible fluid, isgiven by
222222
2
                        
 xw z u z v yw yu xv z w yv xu
(7)The term
 
2
'
 j
 
in the energy equation is the Joule’s
dissipation.The magnetic Reynolds number is considered to be smalland hence the induced magnetic field is neglected incomparison to the transversely applied magnetic field
 j B B
ˆ
0
, which is assumed to be uniform [37]. Further,since no external electric field is applied, and the effect of  polarization of ionized fluid is negligible, it can be assumedthat the electric field is zero. As the plate is infinite, allvariables in the problem are functions of 
 y
and
only.Hence, by the usual considerations of the impulsively startedvertical flat plate problem, the basic equations become
)()1()(
22022
wmumu B g  yu yuvu
o
      
(8)
)()1(
22022
wummu B yw ywvw
o
    
(9)
            
2222
 yw yu y yv
o p
   
 
22220
)1(
wum B
   
(10)where
e
ne Bm
0
 
is the Hall current parameter. Obviously,
o
vv
.The physical quantities are cast in the non-dimensionalform by using the following dimensionless scheme:
vv y ywwuu
w
   
,,,,
20000
(11)Hence, the governing equations of the problem in the non-dimensional form are given by
)()1(
222
wmum M G yu yuu
 
(12)
)()1(
222
wmum M  yw yww
(13)
        
2222222
)()1(1
 yw yu E wum ME  y P  y
   
(14)Here,
020
)(
v g G
w
  
is the Grashof number,
    
2020
v B M 
the square of the Hartmann number,
 P 
p
 
 the Prandtl number and
)(
20
 E 
w p
is the Eckertnumber.It is evident that the initial and boundary conditions aregiven by
0),(),(),(
 y yw yu
 
for 
0
and
1),(;0),(;1),(
 y yw yu
 
for 
0
 y
and
0
 and
0),(;0),(;0),(
 y yw yu
 
for 
 y
and
0
. (15)

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->