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(Abitare) House for Security Guards, Janitors and Babysitters

(Abitare) House for Security Guards, Janitors and Babysitters

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Published by Mi You
On the social housing estate by Urbanus
On the social housing estate by Urbanus

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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: Mi You on Jul 31, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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09/18/2013

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保安、保姆、保洁——三保住宅
城中村:深圳等城市迅速的发展进程使其面临大量外来务工涌入,从而形成“城中村”这样的廉价住宅。几十座被曾经的农民的私产扩建出的超过
3
以上容积率的低层高密度居住
Urban village: The rapid development of Shenzhen and otherareas has led to massive influxes of workers from other regions,bringing about the formation of
urban villages
– low-costhousing. Here, inside the city, lie densely-clustered areas with plotratios of more than 3, formed by homes extended by former
区散布于城中,数以百万计的劳工和服务业人员聚居于此,高度的流动和缺乏城市管理,使得许多城中村出现严重的社会问题和安全隐患。
peasants. These are home to millions of laborers and employeesin the service industry; the high mobility of residents and lack ofurban administration in many of these urban villages have led tosevere social problems and security concerns.
建筑
architecture
House for Security Guards, Janitors andBabysitters
 
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三幕戏:都市实践以土楼公舍为引,发生在空间边缘与时间交替所在
人物
P:
客家祭司,风水先生,打工仔
 M:
客家村民,打工仔
U:
Urbanus
都市实践建筑设计,合伙人为孟岩、刘晓都和王晖。
 ACT I M:
(一段喃喃诵经)“若菩萨有我相、人相、众生相、寿者相,即非菩萨。”那菩萨是什么相?
P:
我们客家人把儒、佛、道三教融合在一起,“菩萨与神仙齐餐,祖先与鬼怪共祭”,《金刚经》还是一定要读的。
U:
我小时候住在北京牛街附近,有最市井的文化。天桥附近最热闹,因为那里人们最穷,家里房子没地方玩,其它地方自然发达。我在纽约工作,朋友圈都集中在曼哈顿,也不会引人到家里……
P:
祠堂是家族的家庙,也是家族繁衍的缩影。祠堂的上、下厅为主体建筑,上厅供奉列祖列宗的神位牌、祭台,而左右厢房放置桌椅,由族人指定专人保管。祠堂供奉春节请戏班演戏、元宵迎龙灯给祖宗神灵看。
U:
我们经常相约下班后在
MoMA 
见,尤其是在周五可以免费入场,看看展览,在附近晚餐。城市生活与资源的丰富有关,自己不足就必须和别人分享。时间错位——我最近在看一本关于明清时期中国城市生活的书,那时他们生活也很丰富,在茶楼一壶茶坐上一下午,谈天说地。
 M:
清明节祭祖是客家家族中的一件大事。清明节前一天我要准备粳米馒头、鸡、猪肉、春笋等;香、烛、鞭炮、冥钱、冥纸等。祠堂上厅依次列放祖公祖嬷灵席椅,祭台上放供品。由主祭人、监祭人、司香人、司爵人、司礼人、司茶人主持。
P:
放鸟统(注:旧时火药枪)!
 M:
早晨三声鸟统把每家男丁召集到祠堂集中,祭拜列祖列宗。
P:
请你在阿妈身后、
M
之前给祖公祖嬷祷告跪拜。
Inthreeacts:UrbanusandtheRoundhouseHousingProject;InteractionsbetweenspatialboundariesandtimeDramatisPersonaeP:
Hakkapries,geomancer,daylaborer
 M:
Hakkavillager,daylaborer
U:
Urbanusarchiec,parneroMengYan,LiuXiaodu,andWangHui.
 ACT I M:
(reciingscripure)“IBodhisatvahavehesemblanceome,oman,oalllie,ohelong-lived,henibenoBodhisatva.”SowhaisheBodhisatvalikehen?
P:
 WeHakkablendConucianism,Buddhism,andDaoismogeher–Bodhisatvasandranscendenssitingdownogeheroea;ancesorsanddevilsoeringupsacricesogeher.BuheDiamondSuraisdenielyrequiredreading.
U:
 WhenIwaslitleIlivednearOxSreeinBeijing–hawasarealneighborhood.Iwasmosbuslingnearianqiao–ha’swherehepeople werepoores.Teydidn’haveanywhereoplayinsideheirhouses,sohey ookheunouside.WhenIwasworkinginNewYork,myriendsareallinManhatan,andheydon’inviepeopleovereiher...
P:
Tememorialempleisheclan’sancesralemple–andamicrocosmoheclan’sorunesoverheyears.Teupperandlowerhallsarehemainparoheconsrucion:heupperhallenshrineshespiriablesoheancesors,healar,anddesksandchairsincubiclesoheleandrigho hehall,whicharemainainedbyhedescendans.ANewYear,weinvieoperaroupesoperorminheemple,andaheLanernFesivalwelighlanernsorheancesors.
U:
 We’doenarrangeomeeupaMoMAaerwork–especiallyonFridays,wheniwasreeogeinandwe’dlookaheexhibisandhengedinnersomewherenearby.herichnessociylieisrelaedohewealho heciy:iyoudon’haveenough,henyouhaveosharewihohers.I’slike beingdislocaedinime:IwasreadingabookabouciylieinChinaduring heMingandQingdynasiesrecenly,andheyhadveryrichlivesoo–siingdownoverapooeainaeahouseandchaingawayhemornings.
 M:
Teomb-SweepingFesivalisabigevenorHakkaclans.Teday  beore,weprepareseamedricebuns,chicken,pork,bambooshoosandoheroods,andincense,candles,recrackers,ghosmoneyandghospapers.Insidehehall,wearrangeseasorhepariarchsandmariarchso 
 
84
004
85
004
U:
这按辈分跪拜之后,你作为家族一分子的美好情感便牢牢树立。
P:
此后顺序沿小院环绕,脚步徐徐。
U:
不由自主向心性。一定是一个均匀对称的几何体。
 M:
我会莫名其妙感到卑微。
U:
我也有过集体感受。
1976
年唐山
7.8
级地震后,北京人民搬到户外度过了夏天秋天。
 
灾难下家庭的界限打破了,我家楼上的老奶奶我家合盖一个地震棚,合住,互相体贴照顾。
 M:
住在土楼却不是这样。
P:
《增广贤文》在我们这里非常流行,都是有关为人处事的实用哲学,推崇
 
明哲保身
 
U:
1976
年地震后呈现出特别有意思的景致——北京突然被填充满了,原来的公共空间不论大小功用都派上用场,形成临时的城市。现代住宅楼的垂直联系当然不如水平的,小孩子当时在邻里间串来跑去,可高兴了。不少临时建筑的地震棚越修越齐备,最后变成永久建筑——我作为建筑师的初步实际训练就是这么得来的。
P:
“想当年,四五六月间,油盐柴米尽皆空,家无四两铁,赊不得,借不得,几多内亲外戚,谁肯雪中送炭?看今科,头二三场,文章正合适,高中五金魁,名也香,姓也香,不管张三李四,都来锦上添花。”
 M:
这让人怎么依恋集体生活?
P:
 
你想走出土楼,走出故乡风水?
 
“人因宅而立,宅因人得存,人宅相扶,感通天地。”你去哪里感通天地?
ourlineage,andweplaceouroeringsonhealar.Teheadandassisanpriess,heincense-bearer,hewine-bearer,hegi-bearer,andheea-bearerpreside.
P:
Fire!
 M:
 Ahreeinhemorning,hesoundohecannonswouldcallhemenoeveryamilyoheempleoworshipheirancesors.
P:
SaybehindMamaandinronoMasyoukneelandprayohepariarchsandmariarchs.
U:
 Aeryou’dlinedupandprayedaccordingoyourgeneraion,you’dhavehewonderuleelingobeingheparoaamilyline.
P:
 Aerwards,we’dleouandcirclearoundhecouryardslowly.
U:
Iwasanunconsciouslyconcenric,pereclysymmericalgure.
 M:
Tawouldmakemeeelreallyinsignican.
U:
I’vehadheeelingobeingparoacrowdbeore,oo–in1976,aerhemagniude7.8earhquakeinnearbyangshan,peopleinBeijing movedousideandspensummerandauumnoudoors.Tedisaser brokedownallhedivisionsbeweendierenamilies–welivedinanemergencyenwihheoldwomanromupsairs,sickingogeherandlookingaeroneanoher.
 M:
Ta’snowhai’slikeinroundhouses.
P:
TeexonheWorhiesispopularhere–allpracicalphilosophy abouhowohandlematersandcomporonesel.
U:
 Aerhe1976earhquake,somehingineresinghappened:Beijinlledup.Peoplepuallohepublicspaces,owork,nomaterhowbigorhowsmallheywere,andheybuilanew,emporaryciy.Tevericaliyo oday’saparmenbuildingsisn’asgoodasalevelciy:backinhosedays,hechildrencouldrunaroundhroughheneighborhoodoheirhears’conen.Andherewereplenyoemporarydisaserenshapeoplekep
 ACT IIU:
对于我,客家土楼不是宗族社会的范本,而是集体生活文化,由高密度产生。我的观点是低收入的人需要集体生活。
P:
你们自己做得也不见得好吧?
 M:
——他是说,你自己也不满于所见所闻吧?
U:
我对北京二环内四合院改造嗤之以鼻,搞得富丽堂皇作为独户高价租出去,而租户谁能没有车?都从车库进出,没有人走大门。街道死气沉沉。我喜欢的四合院的魅力在于大杂院(注:在文革时期多户分配到原来私有的四合院),一种活跃的集体生活方式。清朝也一家一户一四合院,可是当时没车呵,胡同里总见得些人气。
 M:
初到大城市,我们压根不敢想像拥有自己房子的滋味。
P:
不要说初到大城市,十年也飘飘零零。
U:
最近好多人津津乐道,做了各种北京四合院改造方案,要我说这些建筑师沦为地产商的走狗——舆论给公众造成这些是合理的之假象。与其这样还不如拆了四合院盖高楼;同时认真保存几个传统的好四合院。——说话间有报道说福建土楼被正式列入《世界遗产名录》了。
P:
这倒耸人听闻,还好我们家乡里没有这潮流。
 M:
我们到大城市打工,还是和同乡的人在一起。没有路可走的时候,我们只能把镜子转向自己。
U:
我们一直致力公共空间作业。中国发展到现在,私有化成了特别迫切的问题,大家的境界其实都在补课状态。到处可见自己的小空间搞得很好。小时候大家一起看露天电影,而现在连
 buildingupunilnallyheywerepermanensrucures–acually,hawashowIrsgomysarasanarchiec.
P:
“Backhen,allyearround,whenwewereouooodandhadn’apairo coinsorubogeher,whenwecouldn’gecrediandcouldn’borrow anyhing,ouoalloourrelaives,whocameoouraid?Andnow,Igopromoedbychance,everybodycomesofaterme.”
 M:
Howarepeoplesupposedolikegrouplivingaerha?
P:
 Youwanoleaveheroundhousesandleaveyourhomeown?“Tehomemakesheman;hemankeepshehome;husdoheynaurally conormoheavenandearh.”Iyouleave,where’llyouconormo?
 ACTIIU:
Forme,Hakkaroundhousesaren’jusamodelcopiedromclansociey–hey’reheproducoaculureogrouplivingandhighpopulaiondensiy.AndIhinkhalow-incomedemographicsneedgroupliving.
P:
 Andyouweren’sogoodwihiyourselves,wereyou?
 M:
--Hemeans,youweren’saisedwihhehingsyou’veseensoar,righ?
U:
Oh,Idon’approveaallohewaycouryardswereconveredinhehearoBeijing–changedinoindividualpleasure-domesandrenedouorridiculousprices.Andocourseheownersallhavecars,soheyenerhroughhegarage,nohroughherongae.Tesreesaredead.TecouryardsIlikeareheknocked-ogeher“mixedyards”–heonesha wereconveredromcouryardsohousingorlosodierenamiliesduringheCuluralRevoluion.Tere’sareallylivelysideoliehere.DuringheQingdynasyiwasoneamily,onehousehold,onecouryard–buhen,hereweren’anycarshen.Tere’ssomehingmorehuman

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