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Psychology - Class XI - Chapter 04

Psychology - Class XI - Chapter 04

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Published by shaannivas
Psychology Textbook
Psychology Textbook

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Psychology 64
Chapter
4
describe the meaning and process of development,explain the influence of heredity, environment and context on humandevelopment,identify the stages of development and describe the major characteristicsof infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age, andreflect on your own course of development and related experiences.
After readingthis chapter, you would be able to
Human DevHuman DevHuman DevHuman DevHuman DevelopmentelopmentelopmentelopmentelopmentHuman DevHuman DevHuman DevHuman DevHuman Developmentelopmentelopmentelopmentelopment
IntroductionMeaning of Development
Life-Span Perspective on Development 
Growth, Development, Maturation, and Evolution 
(Box 4.1)
Factors Influencing DevelopmentContext of DevelopmentOverview of Developmental Stages
Prenatal Stage
InfancyChildhood
Gender and Sex Roles 
(Box 4.2)
Challenges of Adolescence Adulthood and Old Age
Key Terms Summary Review Questions  Project Ideas 
Contents
I wish I could travel by the road that crosses the baby’s mind, and out beyond all bounds; where messengers run errands for no cause between the kingdoms of kings of no history; where Reason makes kites of her laws and  flies them, and Truth sets Fact free  from its fetters.
 – Rabindranath Tagore
 
Chapter 4 •
Human Development 
65
associated with the processes of knowing,and experiencing, such as thought,perception, attention, problem solving, etc.
Socio-emotional processes
that influencedevelopment refer to changes in anindividual’s interactions with other people,changes in emotions, and in personality. A child’s hug to her/his mother, a young girl’saffectionate gesture to her/his sibling, or anadolescent’s sorrow at losing a match are allreflections of socio-emotional processes deeply involved in human development. Although you would be reading about thedifferent processes in different chapters of thistextbook, it is important to remember that the biological, cognitive, and socio-emotionalprocesses are interwoven. These processesinfluence changes in the development of theindividual as a whole throughout the humanlife-span.
Life-Span Perspective on Development
 The study of development according to theLife-Span Perspective (LSP) includes thefollowing assumptions :1.Development is lifelong, i.e. it takes placeacross all age groups starting from
M
EANING
 
OF 
D
EVELOPMENT
 When we think of development, invariably wethink of physical changes, as these arecommonly observed at home with younger siblings, with parents and grandparents, inschool with peers or others around us. Fromconception until the moment of death, we not only change physically, but we also change inthe way we think, use language, and developsocial relationships. Remember that, changesare not confined to any one area of a person’slife; they occur in the person in an integratedmanner.
Development is the pattern of  progressive, orderly, and predictable changes that begin at conception and continue throughout life.
Development mostly involveschanges — both growth and decline, asobserved during old age.Development is influenced by an interplay of biological, cognitive, and socio-emotionalprocesses. Development due to genesinherited from parents, such as in height and weight, brain, heart, and lungs development,etc. all point towards the role of 
 biologicalprocesses
. The role of 
cognitive processes
in development relate to mental activities
If you look around, you will notice that from birth onwards changes of various kinds are taking place in an individual’s life, which continue even during old age.Over a span of time, a human grows and develops, learns to communicate, walk,count, and read and write. S/he also learns to distinguish between right and wrong.S/he makes friends, goes through puberty, gets married, rears children, and grows old. Even though we differ from each other, we share many commonalities. Most of us learn to walk by the first year and talk by the second year. This chapter will  familiarise you with the changes observed in people during the course of their life- span in different domains. You will learn about key developmental processes and changes taking place in major periods during the life-span: prenatal, infancy,childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age. This would be a journey of personal understanding and self-discovery which should help in your future development.The study of human development would also help you to deal with others better.
Introduction
 
Psychology 66
conception to old age. It includes both gainsand losses, which interact in dynamic(change in one aspect goes with changes inothers) ways throughout the life-span.2.The various processes of humandevelopment, i.e. biological, cognitive, andsocio-emotional are interwoven in thedevelopment of a person throughout thelife-span.3.Development is multi-directional. Somedimensions or components of a givendimension of development may increase, while others show decrement. For example,the experiences of adults may make them wiser and guide their decisions. However, with an increase in age, one’s performanceis likely to decrease on tasks requiringspeed, such as running.4.Development is highly plastic, i.e. withinperson, modifiability is found inpsychological development, thoughplasticity varies among individuals. Thismeans skills and abilities can be improvedor developed throughout the life-span.5.Development is influenced by historicalconditions. For example, the experiencesof 20-year olds who lived through thefreedom struggle in India would be very different from the experiences of 20 year olds of today. The career orientation of school students today is very different fromthose students who were in schools 50 years ago.6.Development is the concern of a number of disciplines. Different disciplines like psychology, anthropology,sociology, and neuro-sciences study human development, each trying toprovide answers to development throughout the life-span.7.An individual responds and acts oncontexts, which include what wasinherited, the physical environment, social,historical, and cultural contexts. For example, the life events in everyone’s lifeare not the same, such as, death of a parent, accident, earthquake, etc., affect the course of one’s life as also the positive
Growth 
refers to an increase in the size of body  parts or of the organism as a whole. It can be measured or quantified, for example, growth in height, weight, etc.
Development 
is a process by which an individual grows and changes throughout the life cycle. The term development applies to the changes that have a direction and hold definite relationship with what precedes it,and in turn, will determine what will come after. A temporary change caused by a brief illness, for example, is not considered a part odevelopment. All changes which occur as a result of development are not of the same kind. Thus,changes in size (physical growth), changes in  proportion (child to adult), changes in features (disappearance of baby teeth), and acquiring new  features are varied in their pace and scope level.Development includes growth as one of its aspects.
Maturation 
refers to the changes that  follow an orderly sequence and are largeldictated by the genetic blueprint which produces 
BoxBoxBoxBoxBox
4.1
Growth, Development, Maturation, and EGrowth, Development, Maturation, and EGrowth, Development, Maturation, and EGrowth, Development, Maturation, and EGrowth, Development, Maturation, and Evolutionvolutionvolutionvolutionvolution
commonalities in our growth and development.For example, most children can sit without support by 7 months of age, stand with support by 8 months and walk by one year. Once the underlying physical structure is sufficiently developed, proficiency in these behaviours requires adequate environment and little  practice. However, special efforts to accelerate these behaviours do not help if the infant is maturationally not ready. These processes seem to “unfold from within”: following an inner, genetically determined timetable that is characteristic of the species.
Evolution 
refers to species-specific changes. Natural selection is an evolutionary process that favours individuals or a species that are best adapted to survive and reproduce. The evolutionary changes are  passed from one generation to the next within species. Evolution proceeds at a very slow pace.Emergence of human beings from great apes took about 14 million years. It has been estimated that the ‘Homo sapiens’ came into existence only about 50,000 years ago.

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