Journal of Mining World Express (MWE)MWE Volume 1, Issue 1 July 2012 PP. 1-7 http://www.vkingpub.com/mwe/ © American V-King Scientific Publishing- 2 -
monitoring of the dynamics of change in environmentalsetting. Since the state of vegetation and biomass volume aredetermined by the quality of soils, we consider it necessary tocompare changes in vegetation index with estimated soil phytotoxicity in the area of activity of enterprises of thenatural resource complex at different distances from thesource of contamination.Objects of our research are:CJSC“Karabashmed”(Chelyabinsk region), JSC “Kombinat Severonikel”(Murmansk region) and Mining and processing complex (MPC) “Vostok-2”, part of JSC “Primorsky GOK” (Primorskyregion), located in different climatic zones - moderate South,far North and Far East, respectively, with different productioninfrastructure (Table
EMISSIONS OF OJSC
IN THE ATMOSPHERE
Indicators 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008
TotalEmissions,Including248.3 213.0 107.8 117.7 95.5 52.4 48.3 41.5 44.4 40.0so
232.5 198.9 97.6 110 88.3 45.3 43.5 37.5 40.3 35.9substances,Including Nickel15.82.714.12.6810.21.967.71.367.21.318.104.22.168.84.00.74.10.454.10.49
Activities of the first two plants, including pyrometallurgy,associated with mining and processing of ores containinghighly toxic (first and second class of danger) heavy metals(P
, As, Cu, Ni, Co, etc.), are characterized by long-termand excessively high technogenic loads on theenvironment. Worldwide activities of mining and metallurgical plants producing nonferrous metals areassociated with extreme negative impact on the environment,where huge amounts of gases (SO
, CO, NO
, etc.) and liquid waste are discharged into the atmosphere in addition to dustcontaining heavy metals (solid waste). Two above-mentioned plantsare not the exception. Negative effects of impact of
high technological loads were found in all ecosystems [7,8].Technogenic load significantly decreased on these plantsduring last 10 years due to various reasons, which allowed usto estimate the response of vegetation on the territory of plantlocation.Mining operations are performed in close-circuit mineworkings during underground mining and they partly changestate of lithosphere in the area of mining. In this regard,underground mining doesn’t cause serious adverse effects onthe state of the environment as a local source of disturbance of the environment. However, the degree of environmental risk ismainly determined by the infrastructure and technologies of surface facilities and structures defining local variability of natural components (biological communities).Mining and processing complex (MPC) “Vostok-2” has just the same industrial infrastructure characteristic of miningenterprises: underground mine, processing plant and storageof plant rejects (“tailings”). To deliver ore to the plant, heavy-duty diesel transport, which is a linear source of pollution, isused. Fixed mine air emissions into the atmosphere areeffected by a mining fan after its cleaning from inorganicdust. In addition, crushing work of processing plant and local boiler plant operating on heavy fuel oil are also sources of air pollution. Ore and plant rejects are low toxic and belong to thethird class of danger. On this basis, using our methodology of a qualitative assessment of the environment status, we canevaluate technogenic load existing here as local and insignificant, since environmental risk does not exceed 0.25,as shown in Table
, Position 4 .Comparison of risks assuch and determination of “risk” priorities means their ranking, but it does not address issues of acceptability of risk,necessary and specific forms of its control. All this becomesclear during the subsequent stages of risk management procedure. To accomplish this, one shall have a quantitativeestimate of the environment status in the study area.
SCALE OF ASSESSMENT OF TOXICITY OF PODZOLIC SOILS
Soil (Ca+Mg)/Cu (Ca+Mg)/Ni
Slightly Toxic 10-29 5-19Highly Toxic
Threshold Value 10 5
OBJECTS AND METHODS OF RESEARCH
CJSC “Karabashmed”, assignee of Karabash copper plant,is currently the oldest of the existing businesses that make upcopper complex of our country.
The enterprise was launched in 1910 on the basis of the existing copper-pyrite ores, whichwere worked out using underground methods.
In 1933, a processing plant was built.
The initial capacity of theenterprise was 8 thousand tons
per year and by 1975 it had reached 60-65 thousand tons of blister copper per year [9,10].
The last mine, recovering local ores, was closed in1991.
One of the main consequences of the technological backwardness of the enterprise was its high environmentalhazard.
Sulfur dioxide was dumped untreated directly into theatmosphere. The maximum volume of emission was observed in 1965-1988, when the plant annually threw 162-164thousand tons of pollutants.
Since launch, the p
has produced 30 million tons of metallurgical slag; large storagesof tailings, rock damps and metallurgical slag have beenformed [10, 11].
All this led to a significant damage of vegetation and formation of large disturbed territories around the source of contamination (Fig. 1).
In 2005, Phase Imodernization of the enterprise was completed, which allowed significant reduction of technologic load on the environment.