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Categories:Types, Business/Law
Published by: Global Justice Academy on Aug 01, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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The Whitehead Journal ofDiplomacy and International Relations 
Diplomatic Processes and Cultural Variations:The Relevance ofCulture inDiplomacy
by Wilfried Bolewski
Let us not be blind to our differences—but let us also direct attention to our common interests and to the means by which those differences can be resolved. And ifwe cannot now end our differences, at least we can help make the world safe for diversity. John F. Kennedy, American University, June 10, 1963.
he relationship between diplomacy and culture has been somewhat neglected inrecent academic and practical studies,
even though competence and understanding during intercultural exchanges unites societies and facilitates further interculturalinteractions.Current public discussions concentrate exclusively on the existence of cultural commonalities and universal values all cultures share.
However,determining likenesses among cultures should be secondary to the awareness ofculturaldifferences as the logical starting point for the evaluation ofinterculturalcommonalities.Intercultural sensitivity within groups paves the way for theacceptance and tolerance ofother cultures and allows members to be open to values which are universal among all groups,such as law and justice,which globalizedsociety should then build upon together.Facing the challenges ofan increasingly complex world,the question ointerdependency between diplomatic processes and cultural variations becomesrelevant:is there a shared professional culture in diplomacy apart from national ones,and ifso,does it influence diplomacy? To what extent can research into nationalcultures help diplomacy and governments to understand international interactions?
General definition 
Before analyzing the interdependency between culture and diplomacy,it isnecessary to state what the word culture implies.According to Hofstede,culture is
 Ambassador Wilfried Bolewski
is the German Foreign Office’s Special Representative forUniversities and Foundations at the Foreign Service Academy,and teaches Diplomacy at the FreeUniversity Berlin and at Sciences Po Paris.He is a Senior Fellow at the Hertie School of Governance,Berlin.For this article he has been assisted by Melanie Svenja Haubrich and SebastianKruse during their internship at the German Foreign Office.
The Whitehead Journal ofDiplomacy and International Relations 
defined as “the collective programming ofthe mind that distinguishes the membersofone category ofpeople (i.e.social group) from another.
In contrast topersonality,culture is not individual but collective.Furthermore,mentalprogramming suggests that information has been internalized by an individual,leaving him unable to judge outside ofhis program’s purview.Hofstede applies thesame definition ofculture to professional cultures,such as the diplomatic one.
 Another approach to defining culture is to state its key aspects.First,culture isa quality ofsociety,not the individual;second,it is acquired through the process of individual acculturation or socialization;and third,each culture is a unique set of characteristics dictating behaviour in every aspect ofan individual’s life.
Culture isthe social identity individuals start to develop when they become aware ofbelonging to a social group:
national cultures as well as political,economic,social,andhistorical elements form a national identity. According to these classifications,culture can be compared to a program;itcontains information about the society in which individuals find themselves.Itprovides information about social roles,the structure ofrelationships,etiquette andhow everyday life should be arranged.
Culture is a guideline for social interaction,but it is only valid in the social context in which this program is internalized among its members;therefore,it is necessary to understand the other members ofthe globalsociety and their program.
Diplomacy deals with culturally diverse groups by means ofinteractions andnegotiations.The negotiation style ofeach participant is formed by one’s owncultural “program.As different cultural groups communicate differently,the cultureofa negotiation party influences its negotiation style.Therefore,the probability of mistakes and misunderstandings increases when the interaction is cross-national.
 While sovereignty and equality are the rational backbones ofinternationalrelations,culture is its distinctive emotional differential;the hidden dimension whichprojects as much impact as political or economic power on decision-making.
 Approach to categorizing cultures 
In order to cope with cultural differences and to train cultural awareness andintercultural competence,it is useful to distinguish between different cultures.Hofstede
categorizes cultures into four dimensions,differentiating 1.betweencollectivistic and individualistic societies;2.masculine and feminine societies anddistinguishing the level ofauthority between the two genders;
3.uncertainty avoidance (i.e.boldness versus cautiousness);and 4.long—or—short-termorientation (in their social contact).The ground-breaking ethnologist Edward T.Hall
distinguishes between cultures ofhigh or low context.In high contextsocieties,people have close connections over a long period oftime,decisions andactivities are focused on relationships,and communication is more unspoken andless verbally explicit.In low context societies,by contrast,people usually have moreconnections ofshorter duration or for a specific reason,individuals are rule andtask-orientated,and information is communicated explicitly.Whereas low context146
 Winter/Spring 2008
cultures pursue an individualistic negotiation style,high context cultures focus onbuilding a relationship.
In other words,low context negotiators are interested in theoutcome ofnegotiations—they want to find solutions to a problem.High contextnegotiators are more interested in attending to relationships by means of negotiations.
Nevertheless,the overall structure ofevery negotiation is regulated by protocolalong with a specific type ofnegotiation style,such as:circular,linear,functional,task-centred or personal.
Further developing Hofstede`s definition ofculture,it ispossible to classify cultures in the following categories:multi-active,linear-active,andreactive cultural groups.Multi-active groups are characterized by a high level of flexibility and are generally disinterested in schedules and punctuality.Reality is moreimportant to them than appointments,and they are willing to invest time in humantransactions.
In contrast,linear-active groups address tasks on an individual basis, while concentrating on a fixed schedule.They stick to plans and facts,and separatesocial from professional aspects.In contrast to multi-active and linear-active groups,reactive cultures listen and try to see the whole picture before they become active.
Regional and national cultures in the diplomatic process 
In order to handle concrete intercultural negotiation situations,it is useful toclassify cultures not only according to dimensions or groups,but also according toregions.Each region ofthe globe has its own cultural peculiarities,whether it is Asia,the Arab world,or Latin America.
On the basis that the cultural backgroundmatters for diplomacy,cultural specificities have to be taken into account.The way ofthinking,speaking,and behaving is deeply rooted in an individuals particularculture,and hence also influences his conduct during diplomatic affairs.
Foreffective and successful diplomacy at all levels,the influences ofregional andnational cultures should also be taken into consideration.
a) The Americas 
aa) United States ofAmeric
 The preponderance ofAmerican power in international relations and Americanhistory are inherent in the self-image ofthe nation and its representatives,andcorrespondingly influence its culture.It not only provides Americans with a sense of pride,but also gives them a distinct impetus to act with self-assurance.Americansociety is dominated by a pervasive emphasis on achievement,which is perpetuatedby historical events such as the pioneers conquering the vast prairie or astronautslanding on the moon.The American culture is characterized by a strong optimistictendency:it is possible to solve nearly every problem through active effort,and hard work leads to happy endings.
 American negotiators are characterized by their “can-do”approach.There existsa strong beliefthat the environment can be manipulated for someone’s ownpurposes.The approach’s main features are to set an objective,to develop a plan,andthen to act to change the environment in accordance with that plan.As a result,not147

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