Sub: Psychology Topic:
The Homework solutions from Classof1 are intended to help students understand the approach tosolving the problem and not for submitting the same in lieu of their academic submissions for grades.
either in isolation or across time. In addition, since psychologists are also humans,any theory of human behavior that they generate presumably applies equally well tothem as to the people they study, and their theories may unwittingly reflect theirexperiences
, biases, and beliefs about being human. Despite psychologists’
consistent attempts to do so, it remains difficult to disentangle the subject from theobject.Jill Morawski, a historian and theoretician of psychology, has described reflexivity inaction by examining several examples in the history of psychology where
‘‘psychologists themselves engaged reflexivity in critical analysis of experimentation’’ (2005, p. 78). In one of her examples she shows how African
American psychologist and educator Horace Mann Bond called into question thesupposedly neutral and objective status of White intelligence testers vis-`a-vis theirBlack test-takers.By adhering carefully to the established rules of the experimental game, as hecharacterized it, Bond showed that results on intelligence tests changed dramatically when a Black tester versus a White tester administered the tests to Black test-takers.
He thus ‘‘outed’’ the White experimenter, challenging the belief that the
experimenter was a purely neutral, unbiased feature of the objective, experimentalsituation whose race, class, gender, and general position in society would remain
invisible to those subjected to the tests. The ‘‘rules of the game,’’ Bond pointed out,
did not allow for the possibility that the test-takers might have certain reactions to